Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

Instructions: 
I am attaching a research article that has been approved my pharmacology professor. This research paper is to be based on the research article that has been attached. 

The research paper need to be written based on the facts from the original article. Should be 1 page or 1 1/2 pages long  In APA format. 

With a introduction 
Body- 3 reasons why you chose the paper and describe it 
And the conclusion- summarizing everything.

Listing all your references, title on the pages. 

Most importantly the paper needs to state what the experiment was, how was it done, what was the outcome and how did it improve the practice in nursing.

 

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Case about a Park in California

 Review the history, background, and details of the case

The case revolves around renovations of an old park located at California which was created thirty years ago. It is used by most people who live in residential houses and flats for recreational purposes as well as for taking Barbecues. The Park is created such that it lacks the modern facilities found in other new parks thus the project of renovating it is currently a trend in this city. The park is old but big such that mostly children and women come there for recreational, sports and Barbecues (Hodgins & Marsh, 1998). The Barbecues are of concern to the city because they can be hazardous to the environment by causing fire to the city. The proposed park will do away with the Barbecues as one way of preventing a disaster.

State the main ethical problem or issue present in the case

The ethical issue in this case is the closure of the old park for two years living people with no recreational facilities for two years. The park uses much water compared to the modern parks thus it is sustainable enough for it to be closed down though it will cause harm to people. The park is of environmental importance and by building shopping malls, playing grounds and other modern facilities will cause harm to the environment. It is therefore an ethical problem since the environment will be interfered with as the technology is advancing. The park should remain the same natural way in order to maintain the environment green and natural (Landrum, 2004).

List the main possible solutions to the case

The firs solution is to close down the park for two years. It is important for the park to be modernized like others in the city since water as an environmental resource will be conserved. The park is currently consuming much water since it lacks facilities like in other modern parks which will help in conserving and saving the water.

There is another solution to solve the water problem. The park should construct modern facilities to save the water instead of constructing the whole of the park. Reconstructing the whole park will consume much money and time. Reconstructing the park will also cause harm to the environment.

The park should remain natural with little advancement. Modernizing it should not interfere with the environment as well as the surrounding people. Modifying it will make it more attractive since it is a large facility where people go to get refreshed and relax.

State the important and probable outcomes or consequences of each main solution.

The first solution which is making the park modern will definitely cause harm to the environment. It is important for the park to be made modernized but as the same time closing it for two years will cause suffering to the people who depend it. People will suffer for two years which is a negative consequence. The project developers should come up with better ways of handling the project instead of closing it down.

Constructing of the park again with modern facilities to save water is a good solution to solve the water crisis problem. Putting modern water saving facilities in the park is a good idea but it will cause time and money.

The park cannot remain natural since making it natural will make it less attractive and of little use. The park should be utilized for financial services. It should be modernized with shopping malls and playing grounds though it will interfere with the natural environment (Yin, 2002).

Describe the likely impact of each main solution on people’s lives

The first solution which is to close down the park will make the people who rely on the park to suffer since they will be left with no places to relax. Most people living in the city live in flats thus it they will suffer as a result of the parks closure.

Reconstructing of modern facilities to save water is a good technique since people will save enough water and mush water will be conserved.

Maintaining the park natural will reduce chances for the people to remain economically developed. Shopping malls, gardens and other recreational facilities will be of economical importance to the people thus maintaining it natural will deny people economical development.

Decide which solution is best; state it, clarity its details, and justify it

The best solution is to close the firm down for two years. Closing the firm for two years means that the old park will be cleared and the new one developed. Two years are not many compared to the development the park will bring to the city. It will be a recreational facility as well as a tourist attraction. Modernizing the park will ensure that the city remains economically developed which is a positive result. The park will include a natural garden that will be there for aesthetic purposes as well as clean the environment. The project should therefore go ahead in order for people to get positive outcomes.

Explain the values upheld and those violated by each main solution. (Use the professional Code of Ethics to help you in this part.)

Through the construction of the new parks, some of the values will be help and other will be violated. Due to the fact that the old park will be closed for a couple of 2 years, they will incur some losses, as there will be no people coming to this resident. In addition, those families who take barbecues there will be violated, as they will no longer be allowed in that area due to dangers of fires spreading (Heckscher, et al, 2008). Additionally, making the park to be modernized will also upheld some values as people will take long before they adapt the newly and modernized park. On the side of renovating, the park will not make the customers as happy as they used to be, as they will not enjoy as in the other parks.

Evaluate each main point and its outcomes, likely impact, and the values upheld and violated by it. Compare the possible solutions to each other and weigh them.

Closing down of the park for two years, will greatly impact on the profit, as it will lower. Additionally, most of the people who rely on the park will move to other surrounding parks to find their satisfaction. Additionally, making the park more modernized will be costly. Additionally, re-innovating will also be costly and it will not appear as the other parks. Thus, every solution has its benefits and disadvantages.

Defend the decision against objections to its main weaknesses

Closure of the firm and modernizing it will cause harm to the environment. This is a weakness since people will suffer. At the same time people require modern facilities and economic development which are way ahead therefore the park should be made modern and the project should proceed.

 

References

Heckscher, M. H., & Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.). (2008). Creating Central Park. New York, N.Y: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Hodgins, B. W., & Marsh, J. (1998). Changing parks: The history, future and cultural context of  parks and heritage landscapes. Toronto: Natural Heritage/Natural History.

Landrum, N. C. (2004). The state park movement in America: A critical review. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

Yin, R. K. (2002). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Environmental Protection

It is the responsibility of governments, not Business to protect the environment. Discuss

Introduction

Environmental protection is both an individual and government concern. Environmental pollution is experienced mostly in countries where businesses are advanced. Modern technology contributes to environmental pollution. The government should therefore come up with policies in order to protect the environment. Environmental protection is necessary in accordance with the international environmental acts. Each country is entitled to respect the environmental acts in order to maintain the environmental green. Environmental degradation results to climate changes which results to negative social impacts. It results to death and destruction of properties. Therefore, the government should be responsible for protecting the environment through enacting laws that will guide the citizens and business owners.

The government is held responsible in case environment of that country is degraded. Countries have come up with ministry of environments in order to protect the environmental issues. Biodiversity loss and climate changes resulting to global warming are viewed as issues of government concern currently unlike before. The international nations should cooperate in order to solve the environmental degradation. The business market as technology advances pollutes the environment more (Mandal, 2010, p.291). This requires the government to enhance policies which will guide both private and public companies on maintaining the environment green. The governments should fund individuals in order to get other sources of energy which will not harm the environment. It is also the responsibility of governments to protect the remaining biodiversity. Biodiversity in many countries attracts tourists from other nations and also add aesthetic value to the environment. Carbon dioxide levels should be maintained by the government. Government should ensure businesses which contribute greatly to emission of carbon dioxide are fined and closed down (Mandal, 2010, p.291).

Due to environmental pollution, citizens suffer serious consequences for example flooding and other natural hazards. Global warming has contributed to death and destruction of properties. The government has a responsibility of protecting its citizens from areas prone to natural hazards resulting from climate changes and global warming. It should provide public awareness to educate its citizens on importance of protecting the environment. The government should ensure that people living in susceptible and vulnerable areas are given insurances in order to protect their lives and properties (Mandal, 2010, p.291). The government uses much funding in assisting its citizens after a disaster which would have been avoided if the environment remains protected. Government ensures that both public and private businesses protect the environment in order to reduce hazards caused by environmental degradation. The government should ensure that companies which do not follow environmental regulations are banned from selling products to the citizens. Citizens are encouraged by government to avoid buying from those companies that cause harm to the environment. Government should ban cars which pollute the environment on the roads. It should fund for construction of electric modern means of communication (Annandale, 2005, p.201). Sulphur contained fuels should not be imported by the government and other private companies. Government should ensure that dump sites are available and located in convenient areas free from people’s sites and dwellings. Governments should give rewards to non governmental and individuals who come up with ways of protecting the environment (Annandale, 2005, p.201).

On the other hand, the business has a role to play in environmental protection. Business people have the ethical role of protecting and ensuring that employees work in environmental free pollution areas. Businesses are encouraging the green type of business and advising consumers to respect and support the green economy. Businesses should respect and do accordance with environmental regulations imposed to them by government. Business individuals have the responsibility of following local, national and international environmental standards and ethics (Annandale, 2005, p.201). For example companies should not emit unsafe and polluted water direct to the river sources. This is forbidden and breaking of such laws can lead to closure of the business. River pollution impacts negatively to downstream users thus causing healthy problems which are discouraged by governments. Businesses should get permit from the national environmental agencies before start of any company. An environmental impact assessment must be done prior to start of any business. On completion of the business, an environmental audit must be completed to ensure that the business is in line with environmental laws and regulations. Oil companies both private and public should ensure that they get permit from an environmental body which is one way of reducing risks of oil spills and import of sulphur fuels (Mandal, 2010, p.291).

Wastes are emitted by various businesses. These are in terms of solid and liquid waste which poses as a threat to the environment. Construction of industries in rural areas leads to deforestation which is one form of environmental degradation. Businesses have got the role to reduce amounts of wastes produced. They should treat the wastes in order to avoid the waste causing harm to individuals and the environment. Packaging bags in various businesses should be improved. Businesses should support proper packaging as role to protect the environment. They should recycle plastic bags and other plastic materials in order to avoid environmental damage (Mandal, 2010, p.291). Incentives should be offered by companies to those individuals who start recycling projects and support them. Businesses should promote individuals and organizations who support protection of the environment. This not only contributes great results to the environment but also improves the businesses performance. Businesses should sponsor individuals as a way of teaching the public importance of keeping the environment green. Use of modern technology should encourage green economy. For example refrigerators which use modern technology have been constructed environmental friendly since they lack ozone gas and other green house gases such as carbon monoxide (Mandal, 2010, p.291). Companies should come up with environmental friendly products which support the green economy. Environmental pollution causes negative results to businesses. Through climate change, global warming arise which results to hazard that cause destruction of buildings and other business properties. The customers who support the green economy do not buy products from well known companies in environmental pollution. Businesses will thereby loose customers which will impact negatively to the success of the business.

Conclusions

Finally the businesses play a major role in environmental pollution. They contribute significant amounts to environmental degradation. They should therefore follow environmental acts and regulations. This will ensure that environment remains green and thus practice green business. Protected environment will lead to better health of the individuals. The government plays a major role in protecting the environment through enacting roles which must be followed by businesses. Thus, both the government and businesses have got significant roles in ensuring environmental management. Environmental protection results to better health conditions of both people and businesses. Biodiversity should be protected together with environmental resources in order to encourage sustainable development in our country.

 

 

 

 

References

Annandale, D. (2005). Making profits, protecting our planet: corporate responsibility for environmental                 performance in Asia and the Pacific. Manila, Asian Development Bank.

Mandal, S. K. (2010). Ethics in business and corporate governance. New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill                Education 291

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 YELLOW STONE NATIONAL PARK

Introduction

            This park is located in Wyoming in the United States of America. It was established on March 1, 1872 by the U.S Congress. Known for its famous geothermal features, the park is renowned as the first park to be established in the whole world. Apart from the wildlife in the park, it is famous for a geyser named the old faithful, which is a main attraction in the park. The park is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion and boasts of a subalpine ecoforest among other ecosystems. The park has a mountain ranger, some of which are considered to be still volcanic. The park also consists of lake, canyons and rivers whose formation is mainly attributed to volcanic activity. Thus, the existences of the many geothermal features that are situated within the park are explained with this activity.

            The park has also been considered a good archeological paradise for the existence of numerous archeological sites as well as much historical significance. It is assumed that there are more than a thousand archeological sites within this park.

            The region has remained largely untouched because of the fact that most early explorers, Lewis and Clark included, did not explore this region. In fact, for many years, the people that inhabited this particular region were the Native Americans. It was during the 1960’s that organized explorers were able to penetrate this region; prior to this the first non-natives that explored the region were mountain men[1].

            After its establishment by congress, the U.S Army was commissioned with the task of overseeing the administration of the park. This mandate was later transferred to the national park service in 1917.

Geography

            The state of Wyoming holds the large land area of yellow Stone Park with 96% of the park being within this state. Montana holds the remaining percentage. Yellowstone is 63 miles (101 km) north to south, and 54 miles (87 km) west to east by air. The park is 2,219,789 acres (898,317 ha; 3,468.420 sq mi). Five percent of that land that comprises the lake is made up of rivers and lakes. Yellowstone Lake is the largest water body in the lake at 87,040 acres (35,220 ha; 136.00 sq mi). The lake is also the highest high altitude lake in North America standing at an altitude of 7,733 feet (2,357 m) above sea level[2].

            The park also has the continental divide passing through it. This divide is one that divides the water sources that drain into both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is approximated that about a third of the park lies on the west of the divide while the other lies on the north. This is because the origins of both the Yellowstone Rivers as well as the snake rivers flow close to each other thus while one drains into one ocean, the other drains into the other ocean, thus the divide.

            Situated of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level, the park sits on the Yellowstone plateau. The plateau is encircled by mountain rangers that have mountains that range in height from 9,000 to 11,000 feet (2,700 to 3,400 m). These mountains are the middle rocky type. The lowest is along Reese Creek (5,282 feet or 1,610 metres) and the highest point in the park is atop Eagle Peak (11,358 feet or 3,462 metres)[3]. A common feature in this park is trees that were buried long ago in soil and ash and which were turned into mineral. These are known as petrified trees and the park has the largest forest of this kind in the world.

Geology

            The park contains a great U-shaped arc all the way through the mountains that extends from Boise, Idaho and extends some 400 miles (640 km) to the west. This feature traces the path of the North American Plate over the last 17 million years as it was transported by plate tectonics across a stationary mantle hotspot. The landscape of current Yellowstone National Park is a recent manifestation of such a hotspot below the Earth’s crust[4].

            The largest volcanic system in North America exists within the park. It is known as the Yellowstone caldera and has also been nicknamed the supervolcano. It is estimated that the magma chamber that lies under the volcano is about 37 miles (60 km) long, 18 miles (29 km) wide, and 3 to 7 miles (5 to 12 km) deep. Over the years, there have been eruptions that have erupted to form the features that are now part of the park.

            Located in Upper Geyser Basin, old faithful is the most famous geyser in the park. The park also has other active geysers including the largest active geysers in the world; Steamboat Geyser. In 2011, it was found that at least 1283 geysers had erupted in the park[5].

The park also experiences thousands of mini earthquakes every year. These are really detected by people. However, there have been earthquakes that have also been catastrophic in the region. In 1959, there was one such quake that led to landslides that caused the death of people as well as destruction of property that was within that region. It has been established that the largest earthquake hit the region since 1980 took place on 30 March 2014[6]. No great damage was reported.

Ecology and biology

            It is estimated that the Yellowstone ecosystem comprises of 20 million acre/31,250 square-mile (8,093,712 ha/80,937 km2) of the park. This includes the national park, forests as well as a wilderness[7]. It is considered the world's largest intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone. It has also been established that almost all of the first fauna that were found in the forest during the first exploration can still be found in the park today.

            It is estimated that there are Over 1,700 kinds of trees and other vascular plants that are native to the park. Another 170 species are considered to be exotic species but are non-native. Of the eight documented conifer tree species, Lodgepole Pine forests cover 80% of the total forested areas in the park[8]. There are also many species of flowing plants that can be found within the park. Because of the hot water that is predominantly found in the area. Different types of bacteria have created a unique ecosystem in this area.

            The creatures native to this park include the gray wolf, the threatened lynx, grizzly bears, the bison (often referred to as buffalo), black bear, bighorn sheep, elk mule, deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, moose, and mountain lion. These are just some of the 66 species of mammals that exist within the different ecosystems that can be found in this park[9]. Other types of animals include the birds, reptiles and insects which can also be found within this park. The flora and fauna that are found within this park are able to sustain each other in continuation of the different food chains and circles of life of the individual species.

History

            Yellow stone national park takes its name after Yellowstone River, where the park is situated. The river got its name from French rappers who had baptized it ‘Roche Jaune’, a rough translation of the Hidatsa, native tribe, name "Mi tsi a-da-zi" which means rock yellow river. This was later changed to yellow stone by American trappers. There is also common belief that the river was named thus because of the yellow stones seen canyon in which the river passes through[10].

            It is estimated that human activity began in this region with the fishing and hunting for food by the aborigines’ over 11000 year ago. These people that lived there used the obsidian rock found in the area to make weapons as well as cutting tools. The first explore to discover the region was John Coulter who discovered the geothermal beauty of the area between 1807-08. He later reported to have seen great wonders such as boiling mud, petrified trees and steaming springs. This report was later confirmed by Jim Bridger. However, the report by Bridger was not believed by many for most people believed that most of his stories were exaggerated[11].

            There were other people who were later on more interested in exploring this territory. Among them was Captain William F. Raynolds who was an army surveyor. However, this expedition was hampered by heavy snow fall which made it impossible to penetrate the region.

In 1969, the Cook–Folsom–Peterson expedition was the first successful group to be able to make a detailed exploration of the yellow park area. They did this successfully by following the Yellowstone River. This particular party kept a journal which was later successfully used in 1870 by the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition[12].

Myths associated with the park

            The unique ecosystem as well as geographical and geological features that surround the park ensures that the park is enshrouded in mystery. This coupled with the fact that the original settles in the area were the Native Americans means that there are a number of myths created that try to explain some of these phenomena. One of the most famous myths in this case is the Yellowstone valley and the great valley myth.

            In this myth, the Indian people who lived in the valley, Yellowstone, lived in harmony with the animals which they had to treat as their bothers. They did this as instructed by the Great Spirit. However, the outsiders came in and treated the land and the animals without any respect and even cut down trees and fished all the fish in the lake. The Great Spirit got sad and sent smoke as a warning to put out the fires but the people refused. He therefore sent rains to put out the fires and destroy the people who wanted to destroy nature. The rain fell for many days and the water started rising, it rose until the people ran for the hills but it continued falling. It fell until a white buffalos’ skin was spread by spotted bear over the valley. This was stretched and tied on the various mountains that surrounded the valley. The buffalo skin stopped the rain from falling on the valley. This was so until the rain stopped[13].                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

Conclusion

            Whether it is by science, history or myth, the explanation of Yellowstone Park is one that is interesting and fascinating to read about or personally experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Schullery, Paul. "The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem". Our Living Resources. U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from http://www.usgs.gov/ on September 25, 2006. Retrieved 27th October 2014 .

Haines, Aubrey L. (1975). "The Exploring Era (1851–63)". Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/haines1/iee1c.html on October 15, 2006. Retrieved 27th October 2014.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin (1895). The Yellowstone National Park: historical and descriptive. The R. Clarke Company. pp. 111–122.

"Defenders of Wildlife". A Yellowstone Chronology. Archived from http://www.defenders.org/wildlife/wolf/ynpchro.html on June 7, 2007. Retrieved 27th October 2014.

“Yellowstone Valley and the Great Flood” Cheyenne Native American Lore archived from http://www.ilhawaii.net/~stony/lore29.html retrieved October 27, 2014.

"Yellowstone, the First National Park" archived from http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/yehtml/yeabout.html , retrieved 27th October 2014.

"Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. Archived from http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/factsheet.htm, Retrieved 27th October 2014.

Macdonald, James S., Jr. (December 27, 2006). "History of Yellowstone as a Place Name". Retrieved 27th October 2014 .

 

[1] Chittenden, Hiram Martin (1895). The Yellowstone National Park: historical and descriptive.

[2] "Yellowstone, the First National Park" archived from http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/yehtml/yeabout.html

[3] "Yellowstone, the First National Park" archived from http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/yehtml/yeabout.html

 

[4] "Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. Archived from http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/factsheet.htm

[5] Schullery, Paul. "The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem". Our Living Resources. U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from http://www.usgs.gov/

[6] "Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. Archived from http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/factsheet.htm

[7] "Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. Archived from http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/factsheet.htm

[8] "Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. Archived from http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/factsheet.htm

[9] "Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. Archived from http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/factsheet.htm

[10] Macdonald, James S., Jr. (December 27, 2006). "History of Yellowstone as a Place Name"

[11] Haines, Aubrey L. (1975). "The Exploring Era (1851–63)". Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/haines1/iee1c.html

[12] Haines, Aubrey L. (1975). "The Exploring Era (1851–63)". Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/haines1/iee1c.html

[13] “Yellowstone Valley and the Great Flood” Cheyenne Native American Lore archived from http://www.ilhawaii.net/~stony/lore29.html

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The New Madrid fault system

Introduction

The New Madrid fault system, describes a huge unstable zone largely viewed as the source of earthquakes that take place in the interior of a tectonic plate. The aforementioned fault line, is held responsible for the historically 1811-1812 earthquakes which were unofficially referred to as the earthquakes of New Madrid. The resultant earthquakes, historically termed as the most calamitous earthquakes are known to have hit parts of The Mid Western and Southern parts United States gradually seeing their way into the South Western parts of the United States shifting from New Madrid. Scientists have closely studied the occurrence of past earth quakes evaluating motions taking place on the ground, in an attempt to predict the possibility of earth quakes of the same or greater magnitude taking place in the near future.

Most predictions as to the likelihood of when the next new Madrid fault will take place are generally based on the number of times huge earthquakes are experienced within the zonal area of new Madrid. Research findings present the possibility of the New Madrid fault zone coming up again in the near future, with reports on the occurrence of massive earthquakes that have agitated the core regions of the United States from the year 2001 to 2011. Blame on massive earthquakes is laid on drilling and mining activities which are the most common human activities within the affected regions. A number of scientists have predicted numerous earthquakes within a period of every 200 years which from a geographical perspective support the likelihood of the new Madrid fault coming up again (David Stewart ,103).

1811-1812 Resultant earthquakes of the new Madrid fault line.

A series of three to five major earthquakes believed to have been magnitude 7.0 or larger earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid Seismic Zone in the two month period between Dec. 16, 1811 and Feb. 7, 1812. Several thousand additional “smaller” earthquakes occurred during the three month period from Dec. 16, 1811 to March 16, 1812. These included 15 earthquakes believed to have been magnitude 6.5 to 8.0 and 189 earthquakes magnitude 5.0 to 6.5. Two thousand were felt by people, indicated by crude seismograph instruments and recorded in personal journals at Louisville, Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio, which are respectively 250 and 350 miles away.

The first principal earthquake, M7.7, occurred at about 2:15 am (local time) in northeast Arkansas on December 16, 1811. The second principal shock, M7.5, occurred in Missouri on January 23, 1812, and the third, M7.7, on February 7, 1812, along the Reelfoot fault in Missouri and Tennessee. The earthquake ground shaking was not limited to these principal main shocks, as there is evidence for a fairly robust aftershock sequence. The first and largest aftershock occurred on December 16, 1811 at about 7:15 am. At least three other large aftershocks are inferred from historical accounts on December 16 and 17. These three events are believed to range between M6.0 and 6.5 in size and to be located in Arkansas and Missouri. This would make a total of seven earthquakes of magnitude M6.0-7.7 occurring in the period December 16, 1811 through February 7, 1812. In total, Otto Nuttli reported more than 200 moderate to large aftershocks in the New Madrid region between December 16, 1811, and March 15, 1812: ten of these were greater than about 6.0; about one hundred were between M5.0 and 5.9; and eighty-nine were in the four range magnitude. Nuttli also noted that about eighteen hundred earthquakes of about M3.0 to 4.0 during the same period.

The first earthquake of December 16, 1811 caused only slight damage to man-made structures, mainly because of the sparse population in the epicentral area. The extent of the area that experienced damaging earth motion that produced Modified Mercalli (Intensity greater than or equal to VII) was estimated to be 600,000 square kilometers. However, shaking strong enough to alarm the general population (intensity greater than or equal to V) occurred over an area of 2.5 million square kilometers.

Due to the harder, colder, drier and less fractured nature of the rocks in the earth’s crust in the central United States, earthquakes in this region usually shake and damage an area approximately twenty times larger than earthquakes in California and most other active seismic areas.

The frequency of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone is still being debated. Several methods have been used to make estimates. Paleoseismology techniques are used to recognize evidence of large prehistoric earthquakes preserved in geologic materials (soil and rock). From the approximate locations, dates and magnitudes the long term average recurrence interval can be calculated. Currently, paleoseismologists infer two or more seven magnitude or larger, large earthquakes have occurred in the last 2,000 years or less giving recurrence interval estimates of 300 to 1,000 years for the large quakes. Probability models extrapolate the approximate 200 years of recorded history or 100 years of instrumental recordings to estimate frequency.

The New Madrid Seismic Zone appears to be about 30 years overdue for a magnitude 6.3 quake because the last quake of this size had occurred 100 hundred years ago at Charleston, Missouri, on Oct. 31, 1895 and had a magnitude 6.7. A magnitude 6.3 quake near Lepanto, Arkansas, on Jan. 5, 1843, was the next prior earthquake of this magnitude. About 75 percent of the estimated recurrence time for a magnitude 7.6 earthquake has elapsed since the last quake of this size occurred in 1812.

The resultant damage

The earthquakes caused the ground to rise and fall – bending and uprooting trees, and opening deep cracks in the ground. Deep seated landslides occurred along the steeper bluffs and hill slides resulting in large areas of land being uplifted permanently. Still, larger areas sank and were covered with water that erupted through fissures or crater lets. Huge waves also known as seiches, on the Mississippi River overwhelmed many boats and washed others high onto the shore. High banks caved and collapsed into the river and sand bars, and points of islands gave way. During this period whole islands disappeared. However, Surface fault rupturing from these earthquakes has not been detected and was not reported to date. The region most seriously affected was characterized by raised or sunken lands, fissures, sinks, sand blows, and large landslides that covered an area of 78,000 - 129,000 square kilometers, extending from Cairo, Illinois, to Memphis, Tennessee, and from Crowley's Ridge in northeastern Arkansas to Chickasaw Bluffs, Tennessee.

The 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes destroyed most or all of the simple buildings in New Madrid and Little Prairie (Caruthersville), the only two towns in the area at the time. The simple, single story log buildings were in fact a very earthquake resistant type of construction. About 5,500 square miles or about 3.5 million acres was also damaged or destroyed by landslides, fissures, sand blows, lateral spreads, subsidence, submergence and uplift. Much of this land became unusable for the subsistence type agriculture of that day. Buildings in St. Louis, 150 miles or more to the north, were slightly damaged. The damage mostly consisted of broken or collapsed stone chimneys and broken stone buildings, a type of unreinforced masonry construction that is especially susceptible to earthquake damage.

 

 

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  • Molecular analysis of acute myeloid leukemia
  • Introduction
  •             Various changes in the hematopoietic progenitor’s cells and the accumulation of the acquired genetic alteration have led to the development of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies have shown that most of the patient nowadays with AML has at least 1 chromosome aberration in their marrow blast. There are also multiple submicroscopic genetic alterations with prognostic significance that have been discovered. This article review mainly focus on first establishing the constitution of normal karyotype in the AML. In addition, the review also provides the genetic alterations that are clinically as both the prognostic marker and the various potential targets for the risk-adapted therapy. In relation to this the article first analyses the internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the FLT3 gene, which is one of the most important prognostic factor. In addition the article also analyses other prognostic factors that have been reported in various studies.

  • Why Are Big Fierce Animals Rare
  •             According to Colinvaux, big animals are rare because the energy that is available in every step of their food chain is degraded (Colinvaux, 1990). The heat that the body system converts into energy is lost during the animal’s food chain. Colinvaux argues that big animals decrease due to natural selection (Colinvaux, 1990). He proceeds to state that through natural selection, big animals get minimal favor in terms of finding resources and survival methods. According to researchers known as Kern and Grigg, in the big animal’s food chain, there is insufficient transfer of energy from one individual to the other (Kern & Griggs, 2005).

  • The Benefits of a Raw Food Diet
  • Introduction
  • There have been various opinions on the increasing trend of nutritional deficiencies. Intensive research has been on the type of food one takes whether raw, cooked, fried or boiled. This article extensively discusses the benefits of raw food on one’s diet with main view on reducing the incidences of nutritional disorders. The act of taking raw food products is known as rawism and it involves feeding on natural food that is uncooked and unprocessed. An individual May be practicing rawism when large percentage of his or her diet constitute raw foods. Foods that can be taken in their raw and unprocessed form include vegetables, nuts, and eggs (Graff,
  • Benefits of including raw food product in ones diet

  • Population Geography
  •             Population geography refers to the composition and growth of people in the world. Population geography also covers about the special variations in the distribution and density of human growth on earth (Bailey, 2011). This type of geography focuses more on how the population in the world is distributed and arranged through various characteristics. It demonstrates the increase or decrease of population within countries all over the world.. Another significant aspect contained in population geography is the occupation structure within various geographical locations on earth. Most of the related areas of geography that depict to offer information related to population geography include demography and sociology disciplines (Bailey, 2011). Moreover, economics is another discipline that offers information related to population geography. Most of the work covered in population geography relates to the population on the earth. The importance of studying population geography is that it helps in linking all other aspects of geography together. Through population geography, it is possible to understand the movements and mobility of populations within countries.

Biofuels

Introduction

               Biofuels refers to energy derived from material that have undergone through the process of biological carbon fixation. Biofuels can also be defined as the types of fuels that are possibly derived from biomass. These materials might be from either plants or animals. These types of fuels are commonly used for either transport or burning purposes. One of the significant advantages of biofuels is that they are renewable and sustainable. Biofuels seems to be the most promising type of fuels that the world will depend on mostly in the near future. The other advantage of biofuels is the fact that they

Global Warming

Introduction

                   Global warming is one of the most significant issues that need great attention nowadays. There is much more information relating to global warming known not only by the academics but also the public and the leaders. Most of this information tends to show the significant effects of global warming on how it causes various ecological and social changes. Changes that relating the global climate are advancing in a very fast way than many people would expect. However, the unfortunate issue is that most of the leaders do not seem to realize the effects of these outcomes. This report is aimed at convincing members of the congress concerning the two opposing viewpoints relating to the impacts of global warming.

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