Buddhism and Hinduism

Primitive religion as according to E. B. Tylor and James Frazer

Tylor, who is a well known anthropologist, defined religion as the faith in mystical and supernatural powers which originated to explain the origins of the earth. The faith in these supernatural spirits came as a fact to explain more about death and life. It explains more about what happens after people die and where they actually go. According to Tylor ancient individuals used dreams where spirits were thought to appear showing that the mind of humans existed independently. This is as a result f their primitive nature. The ancient people used this scene to explain their belief on life before and after death. There exist many myths to explain the belief in the supernatural powers and their existence. Tylor explains that the mind of people at similar times and the explanations given by many cultures and religion are primitive in nature as well as the belief in supernatural powers. The difference in the minds is the fact that some people have undergone social evolution. Tylor explains that science elaborates better the natural phenomenon unlike modern religions like Christianity, Buddhism and Hinduism which focus on God the creator and also the belief in supernatural powers and spirits (Fine, 2001). James on the other hand elaborates his theory by using two given stories. The supreme individual gets two messages which are to be delivered to humans. The messages are about eternal life and death. The death message arrives earliest than the message of eternal life and as a result death came to be. He elaborates that there is a big difference between magic and religion where he suggests that magic is used to influence the world of spirits according to the primitive nature of the people. The dead as he says are also honored and pleased by sprinkling water on them. Taylor and James portray that religion is not an explanation enough as to happenings of the natural phenomenon and that science proves it all.

How Buddhism is used to illustrate Durkheim’s and Geertz’s point that religion is not about God

Buddhism is one of the modern religions which consist of the beliefs, traditions and practices in a supreme being known as Buddha who is known to be a person who brought light to the people by emphasizing more on how to end sufferings and bring understanding. Durkheim argued out that religion is seen as a social occurrence while on the other hand Geertz argued that religion is just a cultural system. They both view religion as one way of leading to good morality among the people since religion has got its rules and regulations. According to Durkheim, the society is the base for sacredness since the society outlines its rules which are to be followed by all people regardless of the religion (Kozak, 2011). He implies that the people have the power in the society such that religion can not be termed as a source of power as people view it. Geertz on the other hand sees religion as a collection of materials and signs with different meanings which are followed by people all over the world. Buddhism religion has a symbol of a Buddha whom they worship and who acts as their deighty.the symbols in different religions have various meanings and importance which are followed by the people. The society is very important as it contributes to the well being of a person and religious as well. Religion depends mostly on the society. Religion can bring biases in the society where certain people are considered to be more powerful as compared to others which contribute to Buddhism being criticized as it divides the people instead. It is important to note that religion encourages a good environment for all people in the society. Some religions have symbols and meanings which are not according to the beliefs of the society for example Buddhism which have various symbols as Geertz argues it out in his theory.

Why sacrifice have so much power

Christianity and Judaism religions focus more on the bible and their belief in one eternal God who is the creator of the universe. Sacrifices are termed as offerings given to the Supreme Being in form of food, animal objects as well as liquids which is known as libation. Judaism practiced sacrifices both blood and non blood offerings in order to please their God. They saw sacrifices especially blood sacrifices as more superior than prayers and offerings and Israelites especially believed that sacrifices were one way of maintaining the good relationship with their God. Sacrifices as Judaism religion emphasizes are one way of pleasing and serving God since by accepting the sacrifices it reveals that God still exists. In Christianity Jesus Christ as the only son of God was sacrificed in order for Christians to get salvation. It was the method God used to save people from sins as he had made an agreement with Abraham. It is important to note that blood sacrifices act as covenants and agreements between different people. They are used as signs and symbols to seal different covenants. The sacrifices are so powerful such that breaking of such sealed covenants can lead to serious consequences especially loss of lives. Christianity whatsoever is against human and animal sufferings as Jesus crowned it all when he died on the cross as a sacrifice in order to save lives. Thus sacrifices are one means of saving lives. Hindu religion emphasizes more on offerings other than animal sacrifice. They do grain, milk and spices offerings as a way of pleasing their God. The offerings are performed during weddings, burials and other important rituals and celebrations. Though sacrifices are very powerful, the modern religion does not support sacrifices especially human sacrifices as it is seen as a way of destroying the natural creation.

 

Karl Marx’s critique of religion

Karl Marx was considered to be a non-religious man though he did not believe in the modern religion which includes Christianity, Islamic, Hinduism and Judaism. He believed that man was a religion in himself. He argued that man has power over the surrounding and over what to do not necessarily by being governed by certain religions. He is so hated by people since of his stand against religion. He argues that religion is for the people who are not aware of whom they are especially the ones that have lost themselves. He suggests that it is man who makes the religion and not vice versa (Marx, & Raines, 2002). He suggests that abolition of religion will contribute to happiness of many people in the world. He continues to say that religion blinds and darkens the minds of innocent people who remain oppressed under the chains of religion. He says that many people don not fight for justice and their rights simply because of religion. He sees religion as one way of destroying people’s conscience, ability, opportunities and strength to fight for social justice. Marx clearly observed that in most developing countries poverty increases with increase in strong religion. In many countries where diseases, hunger, conflicts and fighting, poverty and high levels of corruption take place are guided by religion (McKown, 1975). Religion should not be an excuse of failing to develop thus Marx finds reasons to criticize it strongly. The oppressed people continue being oppressed by corrupt leaders since they are guided by their religions and can not fight back for their rights. Karl Marx is very irritated by this fact and thinks that religion contributes not only to sufferings but oppressions. Marx criticizes religions as he sees it as the path to oppression and suggests that religion is the man himself and not those oppressive guidelines and teachings.

Difference between Buddhism and Upanishads and Christianity

According to Vedas the existence of the whole universe is as a result of some supernatural being and powers while the Upanishads believe that the origin of the whole universe is Brahman. According to this religion Brahman is the origin and control of all the physical and spiritual things in the universe. The religion believes that after all the things are over, they can be manifest themselves in to other things which is contrary to Christianity and the other religions. Christianity dwells on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ while Buddhism dwells on the life and teachings of the Buddha (Ingram, & Streng, 1986). Christianity is an outcome of Judaism while Buddhism is an outcome of Hinduism. Christianity and Judaism believe in the holy trinity who includes God the father, son and Holy Spirit while Buddhists believe in Buddha and sufferings in the samsara (Kozak, 2011). Christians follow the teachings of Christ the messiah while Buddhists follow the teachings of Buddha. Christians believe in the holy gospel of spreading the gospel to all people so that they can receive salvation while Buddhists believe in attaining Nirvana which is a cycle involving death and rebirth. Christians worship in churches and cathedrals where they teach people on salvation through the clergy while Buddhist worship in temples monasteries where monks and nuns dwell as they spread the gospel of Buddha. Christians believe in life after death and they do not know the actual date of the coming of the messiah while Buddhists do not believe in such beliefs about the second coming of Jesus. Buddhists have nothing to believe in salvation. They only believe in Nirvana where they put their desires first while Christians believe that Jesus Christ brought salvation to the people by dying on the cross. Christians believe in resurrection and forgiveness of sins and salvation is achieved by faith in God.

Bhagavad Gita as one of the greatest synthesis in Hinduism

The Bhagavad Gita is very famous and is widely read and is captured among the three principles of Hinduism after Upanishads and Brahma sutras. It is set as a way to solve ethical problems whereby the teachings are in such a way that the business of the people is in the performance of what they do and not the actual actions they did. Its teaching is that God should not be questioned after someone loses anything in life instead everybody should perform his duty (Schmidt-Leukel, 2006). In most religious ceremonies, the Bhagavad Gita is commonly used strictly according to the Hindus teachings. The Gita which was published long after the Hindus teachings contains many theories and philosophies which contribute to its being the most read book. The Upanishads which are the treaties made gave rise to the Vedas. They form the basic principles of Hinduism and are also the goals and teachings of Vedas. The Gita forms the most fundamental part in the Mahabharata. It is a conversation between two gods on the battle field. The Gita holds the balm of the Upanishads just like the way the Vedas is contained by the Upanishad. The Gita is the most valued jewel according to the Hindu since it is a widespread gospel and teaches of the synthesis of the yoga. It is greatly ranked in the world’s writings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Fine, L. (2001). Judaism in practice: From the Middle Ages through the early modern period. Princeton, N.J: Princeton Univ. Press.

Ingram, P. O., & Streng, F. J. (1986). Buddhist-Christian dialogue: Mutual renewal and  transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Kozak, A. (2011). Buddhism and Christianity in dialogue: The Gerald Weisfeld  Lectures 2004. Norwich: SCM Press.

Kozak, A. (2011). The everything Buddhism book: A complete introduction to the history, traditions, and beliefs of Buddhism, past and present. Avon, Mass: Adams Media.

Marx, K., & Raines, J. (2002). Marx on religion. Philadelphia, Pa: Temple University Press.

McKown, D. B. (1975). The classical Marxist critiques of religion: Marx, Engels, Lenin, Kautsky. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Schmidt-Leukel, P. (2006). Buddhism, Christianity and the question of creation: Karmic or divine?. Aldershot: Ashgate.

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Irreligion in the Western Society

 

Introduction

A study themed ‘The Global Religious Landscape- Religiously Affiliated’ by Pew Research Center estimated that 16% of the world population (1.1 billion people) are non-religious, including agnostics, atheists, secular humanists, and people who answer none or no religious preference when asked an open-ended question about their religious preference. The report also noted that many of the religiously unaffiliated have some religious beliefs and the majority of religiously unaffiliated come from Asia and the Pacific.

A 2012 survey conducted by WIN- Gallup international dubbed the ‘Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism’ found that 36% of the world population is not religious (including atheists) and that between 2005 and 2012 world religiosity decreased by 9%.

The same report done by pew research center also found that in a country like America, which may be considered as the most liberal of all western societies, 51 million or about 16.4% of its population is religiously unaffiliated. This study includes both adults and children (Winston, 2013).

Research indicates that large groups of individuals that are non-religious are usually from Asian societies; however, irreligion is slowly spreading and taking root in the western society. This state in western society is mainly attributed to the fact that more people in this society are questioning the very existence that explains religion. So, what is irreligion?

Irreligion

Irreligion is the absence of religion in a given society or given individuals. It is also termed as indifference towards religion, rejection of religion or hostility towards religion as a whole. This is according to the encyclopedia of religion and society. The term changes when characterized with either rejection or hostility. When characterized with rejection of religion, it involves atheism, which is the rejection that there are no deities, and secular humanism. On the other hand, when characterized with hostility towards religion it involves ant religion, antitheism, and anticlericalism. When characterized with indifference it includes apatheism (Campbell, 1971).

History of irreligion in the western society

The first case of irreligion experienced in the western society was in France, during the French revolution in the sixteenth. In this period, the spirit of free inquiry was evoked to decide which of the various Christian traditions were true and which false, there had constantly appeared, inquisitive or daring minds which disputed or denied them all. The train of thought, which in the time of Luther had expelled from the Catholic fold several millions of Catholics, drove a few Christians every year out of the pale of Christianity. Irreligion had spread among sovereigns and wits, but it had made no progress among the middle classes and the people; it was a fashionable caprice, not a popular opinion.

The fundamental principles of the Church were at war with those which they desired to see prevail in the civil government of the country. The Church was founded on traditions: they professed the greatest contempt for all institutions claiming respect in virtue of their antiquity. It recognized a higher authority than individual reason; they allowed of no appeal from reason. It clung to the notion of a hierarchy; they insisted on leveling all ranks. The two could never come to an understanding, unless both admitted that political and religious societies, being essentially different, could not be governed by like principles. As they were far from any admission of this kind, it seemed to the reformers necessary to destroy the religious institutions of the time in order to reach the civil institutions, which were constructed on their basis and model (Byron, 2003).

The scenes that took place in France were without precedent. Established religions had often been violently attacked, but the fury, which assailed them, had always been inspired by zeal for some new religion. Even the false and detestable religions of antiquity met with no violent or general opposition until Christianity arose to displace them. Before that event, they had died of old age, quietly, in the middle of doubt and unresponsiveness. In France, the Christian faith was furiously assailed, but no attempt was made to rise up another religion on its ruins. Ardent efforts were made to eliminate from men’s souls the faith that was in them, and leave them empty. A multitude of men engaged warmly in this ungrateful work. Absolute infidelity, than which nothing is more repugnant to man’s natural instincts, or produces more discomfort of soul, appeared attractive to the masses. It had formerly given rise to a sickly languor: it now engendered fanaticism and propagandism. The species of constraint laid upon the enemies of the Church increased instead of diminishing their power (Byron, 2003).

Why irreligious beliefs are getting more and more common

The church

The great religious upheaval of the sixteenth century contributed to the long-term decline of religion and the rise of secularism in the West. The most important effect was the reality of religious division itself. Beginning in the late sixteenth century, Western Christians had to begin to cope with the reality of what would later be referred to as pluralism. In the midst of a continually multiplying number of groups claiming to have the truth, it becomes difficult for many people to believe that any faith can be true. During the religious wars in France, the essayist Michel de Montaigne, though a supposed Catholic, expressed certain skepticism about all religion. He wondered how the people on opposite sides of the wars could be so certain of their beliefs. The fact that people held to contradictory beliefs with dogmatic certitude was, for Montaigne, grounds for wondering how either side could be right.

This attitude was not widely shared by contemporaries, but in the next century, it came to be expressed more openly. The argument of the initial skeptics was, "If a variety of religious groups each claims to have the truth, and each claims that all the others are in error, does it not seem reasonable that all of them are in error?" this still remains an issue to date and the church can no longer fully defend its position (Winston, 2013).

Modern Christianity is much the same as the Christianity that was there during the French revolution. It stresses ethical teachings, denigrates the importance of basic doctrines, relegates belief to people's private lives, and is embarrassed by open displays of religious enthusiasm. The familiar modern social convention appeared whereby it is considered bad manners to discuss religion, in part because it is likely to be conflict-ridden.

Science

Over the years, religion has tried to stamp out science. This is because, science fills in the gap that religion failed to do. It would take man a long time to work out the problem of reconciling scriptural authority with scientific discovery. Over the years philosophers have criticized religion while coming up with reasons that explained the once was supernatural and divine. Instead of placing the existence of humanity and earth in the traditional history of creation, science became the logical reason for everything formerly unexplained or mystical. Constituting the existence of humanity and cosmos to both science and religious facts at the same time is not possible. Alternatively, more drastically spoken, for those people, religion can only be marked as a false science (Paulos, 2009).

Modernization

Similar to the process of secularization, modernization is rooted in a revolutionary situation of the eighteenth century. Initially evoked by the rise of the enlightenment in Europe, the Industrial Revolution in the UK in 1750 was the starting point of the modernization era. After the emergence of the industrialization in England, the commonness of modernization reached Europe closely after the French Revolution in 1789. Since then modernization occurred as an essential interdependent modification in the political, socio-cultural, economical, as well as technological level (Casanova, 2009). The first phase of the modernization process was coined by the boost of the scientificational worldview and the substantial growth of productivity. According to research in most of the European countries, modernization caused a great shift of guiding values to the direction of an improvement of human existence in the present world rather than in the beyond world. In short, religious values and beliefs had to give way to a new worldview arising out off the progress of modernization. This is still the issue to date.

Economic security

Economic security has been one of the major outcomes of the modernization era in Western countries and especially in Europe. Above all goals to be attained, the personal well-being has been one of the highest objectives. Man was trying to achieve and maintain after the rise of modern society. No one would vehemently disagree to the general notion that a high religiosity is mostly distinct in countries or societies suffering of bad economic conditions, such as poverty or misery. Furthermore, religious belief becomes prominent in situations inevitable in human life, such as in times of death, mourning, sufferings, tragedies and frustration. So, one could easily conclude that anytime Man is desolated by luck and prosperity, faith in religion becomes more prominent and vice versa (Paulos, 2009). Although this common view of the interdependence of religiosity and personal well-being through economic wealth is not generally rejected, clear evidence is not easy to achieve. Studies carried out in more prosperous western countries indicate that the more prosperous the country, the less the people believed in religion.

Alternatives

Irreligion is slowly growing due to the vast number of alternatives availed to those who do not believe in religion. Since time in memorial, the people against religion believed in nature and science. There has however never been any concrete alternative to religion and therefore all those who subscribe to this school of thought believe in whatever they want to believe in.

Religious violence

Over the past decades, religion has been subject to violence either internally or externally. There have been cases where two different religions are at war with each other. Religious violence does not refer exclusively to acts committed by religious groups, but also includes acts committed by secular groups against religious groups. One of the most prominent reasons for the "rise of the secular in Western thought was the reaction against the religious violence of the 16th and 17th centuries. He asserts that the secular was a way of living with the religious differences that had produced so much horror. Under secularity, political entities have a warrant to make decisions independent from the need to enforce particular versions of religious orthodoxy. Indeed, they may run counter to certain strongly held beliefs if made in the interest of common welfare. Thus, one of the important goals of the secular is to limit violence (Bland, 2003).

Conclusion

Irreligion in the western society was a phenomenon that slowly took root-replacing religion. It has been established that there are many reasons that have led to this particular development. Research shows that this staggering number keeps on growing on a daily basis with more people forsaking religion for no religion at all. From this perspective, it seems that this trend will continue growing. Since the world keeps on rapidly modernizing as well as science, keeps on making progress that further pulls individuals from religion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Brundell, B. (2010). The Day of the Atheists. Compass (10369686), 44(3), 6-11

Casanova, J. (2009). The Secular and Secularisms. Social Research, 76(4), 1049-1066.

Corbin, C. (2012). Nonbelievers and Government Speech. Iowa Law Review, 97(2), 347-415.

Gefter, A. (2008). Review: Irreligion by John Allen Paulos. New Scientist, 197(2641), 48.

Paulos, J. A. (2009). Irreligion: A mathematician explains why the arguments for God just don't add up. New York: Hill and Wang.

Winston, K. (2013). Unbelief is world's third-largest 'religion.'. Christian Century, 130(2), 14.

Wolde-Mikael, K. (2003). The interrelation of Modernization and Religion in Western Society.

The Global Religious Landscape - Religiously Unaffiliated.’ Pew Research Center.

‘Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism’. WIN-Gallup International. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 04 April 2013.

Byron, B. (May 2003). Evil Enemies: The Convergence of Religion and Politics

 

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Hebrew legacy

 

 

  1. 2. What is the origin of evil and human suffering, according to the explanations given by each of the following: the Hebrew scriptures, the sayings of the Buddha, and Hesiod in Works and Days

Hebrew scriptures

             According to the Hebrew scripture teaching the “evil” is expressed as the state of going against the will of God. This is because God is mainly expressed as the Supreme Being and therefore anything good is usually associated with the God’s character. Considering the narrative story of the war in heaven it is evident that the evil existed even before the Satan. In addition, the Hebrew Scriptures also provide that the misused power of the agency to have caused pain even to God himself. This is demonstrated in the scripture where Enoch witness the weeping of God. Moreover, according to the Hebrew scripture, the man disobedience against God resulted in the sin that in turn led to suffering

Saying of the Budhha

             From the Budhha saying evil is something that we create. This therefore implies that evil is something that affect us. Moreover, according to the Buddha teaching it is evident that greed is the major cause of suffering among the human beings( Hooper,2012). In addition according to the Buddha teaching in order to avoid human suffering one is supposed to mind the others.

Hesiod in Works and Days

            From the Hesiod poem it is evident the that the evil can cause the harm to an entire city. This therefore implies that the evil should be avoided. In addition according to the Hesiod poem it is true that the evil plan harms mostly the planner himself. This implies that the planning of evil may end up causing suffering even to the planner.

  1. Heraclitus and Parmenides presented strongly contrasting theories of "the nature of things." Explain fully the scientific thought of both men. Which one of them seems more nearly correct?

Heraclitus thought on nature of men

            From the Heraclitus thought on men it is evident that the human being lacks the knowledge of understanding. He taught that most people usually sleep walk through life and rarely understand what goes around them. In addition according to his teaching most of the men are not unaware of what they do in their dairy activities. He also argues that people must always follow their own judgment when making decision regarding the various issues. 

Parmenides on thought on nature of men

            Parmenides uses the way of truth to describe the nature of human beings. He argued that nothing could come from nothing. This therefore implies that the human being must have come from the somewhere and therefore must have an origin. In addition he also indicates that the human beings are aware of themselves since they are able are able to think and therefore qualify to be called beings.

  1. [Answer both parts (a) and (b) if you choose this question]: (a) What are the main similarities and differences between God and humans, according to the Hebrew scriptures? (b) What are the main similarities and differences between the gods and humans, according to the Iliad?

 (a) What are the main similarities and differences between God and humans, according to the Hebrew scriptures

Similarities

            According to the Hebrew teaching man was made in the image of God.  In relation to this God gave man some divine attribute which makes man different from the other animals that were created. Some of the attributes that God gave to man was the ability to have a language to communicate. Most importantly man was given the attribute the freedom to choose between the good and evil. Other attribute that man share with God include love, and creativity.

Differences

            One of the major differences between God and man is the fact that he is infinite while the human beings are finite. Another major difference is that God wisdom is supreme comapared to the human wisdom. In addition God is more powerful than the human being.

What are the main similarities and differences between the gods and humans, according to the Iliad

Similarities

            One of the similarities between the gods and the human is the fact that some gods were considered not to be internal and therefore could die after some time. The gods were also subject to love like the human being. Another important point to note is the fact that the gods were  considered to also be subject to pain like the human beings.

Differences

            The gods were different from the human being in that some of the gods were regarded as just and therefore and holy. Another significance difference between the gods and human is the fact some of the gods were considered to possess wisdom. In addition these gods also have power to choose when to be good.

  1. What is the covenant?  How is it unique among the nations of Abraham's day? The Old Testament is a Covenant book.  Which Covenant is the main covenant and why?
    What is a covenant?

            Covenant usually refers to an agreement between two or more parties.  In the Hebrew scripture the covenant refers to the various ways that God used to communicate to his people about the plan of redemption or guarantee of the internal life.

How is it unique among the nations of Abraham's day

            The Abraham covenant was unique since it comprised of three major parts. First, God promised Abraham that his descendant would be numerous.  Second God also gave Abraham a promise that hhe would give his descendant the land of Canaan. This meant that Abraham would migrate from the present land to the Promised Land with his descendants.  The third and the final part that of the covenant is that God promised Abraham that all the nations would be blessed through him.  

            The Old Testament is a Covenant book.  Which Covenant is the main covenant and   why?
The major covenant in the Old Testament is the covenant illustrated in the book of Jeremiah (Lemche, 2008). This is because in this type of covenant involves the establishment of relationship between God and human through the Jesus. This new covenant is available to all people since according to the covenant whoever believes that Jesus dead for him or her is able to receive the everlasting life.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Hooper, R. J. (2012). Jesus, Buddha, Krishna & Lao Tzu: The parallel sayings. Charlottesville, Va: Hampton Roads Pub.

Lemche, N. P. (2008). The Old Testament between theology and history: A critical survey. Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox Press.

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  • Elements of religious tradition
  •             The social structure about the religious tradition can be embarked roughly on continuum that dwells on the respective height of interpersonal involvement and engagement in social life. Most religious traditions are at some point entrenched in different aspects of personal and social life, for instance, the medieval Catholic Church and some Islamic states tend to have the same concept about religious tradition. Some other religious traditions with the same concept can as well placed under the same category as they portray on personal and social life. Nevertheless, the multivalent interplay amongst the secular and religious spheres has raised a number of questions about the essence of religion since they ought to argue that it presents the tradition in a totally embedded within the political, cultural and social economic worlds view.

  • Hebrew legacy
  • 2. What is the origin of evil and human suffering, according to the explanations given by each of the following: the Hebrew scriptures, the sayings of the Buddha, and Hesiod in Works and Days
  • Hebrew scriptures
  •             According to the Hebrew scripture teaching the “evil” is expressed as the state of going against the will of God. This is because God is mainly expressed as the Supreme Being and therefore anything good is usually associated with the God’s character. Considering the narrative story of the war in heaven it is evident that the evil existed even before the Satan. In addition, the Hebrew Scriptures also provide that the misused power of the agency to have caused pain even to God himself. This is demonstrated in the scripture where Enoch witness the weeping of God. Moreover, according to the Hebrew scripture, the man disobedience against God resulted in the sin that in turn led to suffering.

  • Mercy and Justice
  •             The bible, which is a word of God, mainly contains a set of specific instructions that guide how nations and individuals should operate. This holy book contains two sections the Old and the New Testaments. The Old Testament is a covenant of law and therefore implies that it outlines issues related to justice. On the other hand the New Testament is a covenant of grace and articulates issues related to mercy. The Old Testament was directed towards the Jewish people who were God’s chosen people. This Old Testament lays down the laws that man was supposed to follow. In addition it also lays down various punishments that could follow in case anyone disobeyed the law. Some of these punishments that one was supposed to get after disobeying the law were so cruel that the Old Testament can only be termed as the creator’s righteous justice under the law.

  1. u03d2 Threats and Consequences
  • Conduct research on the November 2008 attacks in Mumbai, India, and the general impact of terrorism on tourism.
  •             The attack on November scarred the face of tourism industry in India. The attacks were probably the worst that the city had ever experienced. According to the survey the Indian government conducted concerning the attack, it indicated that the attack lasted for approximately 60 hours. The survey showed that the terrorists conducted meticulous preparation for the attack before performing the act. The terrorists who conducted the attack succeeded in creating an overwhelming confusion to the authorities by employing much terrorism experience (Rabasa, 2009). The number of terrorists who managed to perform the Mumbai attack was ten militants. The Militant used AK-47 guns, low intensity bombs and grenades. The terrorists accomplished their goal of attacking ten targets. The primary targets of the attacks were to hit various major hotels in the city of Mumbai. The secondary targets were to scare the public and cause more panic. Every business had to stop operating especially the hotel industry, which affected tourism in Mumbai.

  • Report On the Religious Life of Planet Earth
  • Introduction
  •             Religious life has a certain objective character. The character is given by or should resemble a certain belief. Religious life ought to follow a certain set critiques. These critiques are the one that help in determining whether people follow commandments outlined on their belief or not. The critiques outlined by the belief illustrate how people ought to associate themselves with one another. The critiques also illustrate how people ought to associate with the unknown world. The critiques illustrate various commandments that man ought to accomplish in order to build a strong relationship with the divine being. Failure to follow the critiques contributes in making man sinful. According to religious belief, when man sins, the whole planet is considered unclean. In order to determine whether religious life exists on planet earth, my main obligation is to consider and determine whether people of this planet follow the critiques of the beliefs.

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