Questions We Can Answer For you

****Resource: NCCAM website**** http://nccam.nih.gov/ Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that describes an overview of CAM and its categories of treatments. Include the following: •Compare and contrast conventional current regulations and oversights that exist in the United States with that of nonconventional medicine. •Define the terms alternative, complementary, and integrative in relation to medicine and clarify how these terms are different. •Describe how conventional medicine plays a role in these three terms. •Examine the philosophy of CAM and how it relates to or is different from conventional Western medicine. •Describe how NCCAM classifies Complementary Health Approaches. •Select one CAM treatment therapy (modality) from among the complementary health approaches and describe it. •Using one medical condition, describe how your chosen therapy can be used as an alternative, a complementary, or an integrative therapy for that specific medical condition. •Include the results of scientific studies that show a clinical benefit from the example selected, if available. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Use at least two references besides NCCAM

 

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Bandura’s Observational Learning (Modeling) “Bobo Doll” experiment

Introduction

Observational learning can be defined as a type of learning that normally as a work of observing or imitating someone’s behaviors. One of the first recorded examples of observational learning is the Bobo Doll experiment that was by performed by Albert Bandura. The aim of the entire experiment was to show how children can learn by observing the people around them (Doyle-Portillo and Ellen 209). Bandura concluded that Children’s act of aggressiveness is derived from adults around them. This is due to the fact that they often imitate this aggressive, as they tend to spend most of their time with aggressive people.

Independent Variable

The independent variable of Bandura’s experiment include the aggressive acts that were carried out by the role model, the magnified doll and other toys that were used by the children to play (Tassoni 134). This was done in order for the child to choose to whether play violently or non-aggressively.

Dependent Variable(s)

The dependent variables in the entire experiment was the process of learning via modeling and imitating the behaviors (Doyle-Portillo and Ellen 209). This was accomplished by observing the role model carrying out different acts.

Control subjects/ groups

The control groups consisted of 24 subjects

Experimental groups were eight

Experimental subjects six

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the experiment was that children’s aggressive actions are learned through examining and copying others.

Materials

Toy mallet, stuffed animals and fascinating toys

Procedure for Control Condition

The control condition of this procedure consisted of four conditions. These may include motivation, attention, memory and initiation (Doyle-Portillo and Ellen 209). The observers were first told to pay attention to what was happening around them. They were then told to copy what the role models were doing.

Procedure for Experimental Condition

Bandura tested 36 boys and 36 girls who were aged between 37 to 69 months. The role model comprised of one male adult and one female. The children were exposed to the role model and were further divided into their respective gender. Boys were exposed to male role model and girls were exposed to female role model.

Results for Control

Children who were more reinforced had high level of aggressiveness than those who were not reinforced. Additionally, children who were attentive had high level of aggressive.

Results for Experimental

The results showed that those children, who were exposed to aggressive role model, had aggressive behaviors. On the other hand, those students who were exposed to non-aggressive behaviors turned to be non-aggressiveness.

Conclusion

The above results are more meaningful to me as I am able to know why some children tend to be more aggressive while others are not.

 

 

Tolman’s “Latent Learning” experiment

Tolman’s theory has promoted a lot in the field of psychology. Tolman conducted the rats’ experiments as a method of studying learning. The best example is the maze running where he studied how rats are able to maneuver through the complex network s. the experiments contributed in the latent theory where learning is seen to occur even when an obvious reward is absent (Hergenhahn et al 429). Tolman argues that individuals are involved in latent learning in their daily activities since they are able to master what they do daily. They are able to locate various buildings since they see them daily. Tolman argues that learning is not dependent on connections between different stimuli and conditions which he experiments using rats.

Independent variables

The independent variables used in Tolman’s experiment include rats that were used to show that learning is not affected by the stimuli or conditions.

Dependent variables

The dependent variables used in this experiment involve the learning process which is demonstrated using behavior of rats (Hergenhahn et al 429). This was achieved through observing the behavior of rats for some time.

Control groups/subjects

The control group consisted of 20 subjects

The experiment groups were three

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of this experiment is to show that learning is not affected by different stimuli and conditions. Learning is a continuous process which shows that people are able to learn from daily activities.

Materials

The materials include rats, discrimination box

Procedure for Control Condition & Procedure for Experimental Conditions

The rats were run across 6 unit maze. Control group number one placed food in the goal box where rats were. The rats were subjected to some few days without food depending on the group. Honzik together with Tolman repeated the experiments with 14 units (Hergenhahn et al 429). When path one is blocked most rats preferred to use path six showing that rats have mental knowledge on where to locate the food.

Results for Control & Results for Experimental

The results indicated that rats sensed the food even when one path was blocked. This shows that latent learning does not depend on the given stimuli and conditions since mental knowledge are available.

Conclusion

From the results of the experiment we learn that leaning is not dependent on conditions and given stimuli. It is dependent on mental knowledge of the individual.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Doyle-Portillo, Susann, and Ellen Pastorino. What Is Psychology?Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.

Hergenhahn, B R, and Tracy B. Henley. An Introduction to the History of Psychology. , 2014. Print.

Tassoni, Penny. Children's Care, Learning & Development. Oxford: Heinemann, 2005. Print.

 

 

 

 

 

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 Qualitative and Quantitative Research Analysis

Introduction

            The essay will discuss two journals which show how qualitative and quantitative approaches are used to enhance good research methods. The journals discuss the effect of companion animals on the social life of the society. The first article by Phil Arkow shows how the companion animals are used and the effects they have on lives of Americans. This article outlines how a quantitative research can be used to show how companion animals and pets are viewed. The second article whose author is William O’Grady shows how youths in Canada view the companion animals and how the street life affects them psychologically and emotionally.

            The first journal by Phil Arkow is an example of a quantitative research method. It portrays how companion animals affect the social life of the society in America. Social animals contribute to mental effects in the owners mind. The owners are used to those companion animals and prefer to stay with them at all times. Some companion animals from the findings are of economic important to the owners. Companion animals are also found in urban centers where they give company to their owners and are useful for economic purposes (Arkow, 2013, p.34). Companion animals from the findings are subjected to physical injuries and abuses from the owners. This is a negative treat for those animals since they have more benefits to the owners. The community is affected socially by causing harm to the animals. The population of social animals especially from the findings is that population is declining. This will cause negative social consequences to the affected communities who depend much on the companion animals for several social benefits (Arkow, 2013, p.34).

            The second journal by William O’Grady is an example of a qualitative research method. The study which is qualitative in nature showed that street children and youth in Canada have many companion animals and pets. This is because they lack homes and parents thus turning to the companion animals for company (Lem et al 2013, p.287). The youth uses the companion animals for leisure and company since they lack shelters and parents. The research and findings show that a big percentage of youths who have companion animals are not in to drug and substance abuse. They spend most of their time with the companion animals which is a positive impact to the society. The findings show that the death of companion animals has negative consequences to the youth in terms of mental and psychological consequences (Lem et al 2013, p.287). The youths in Canada make choices of living with the companion animals since they give them a sense of belonging thus contributing a good health to the youths.

            William O’Grady and Phil Arkow in their researches use interviews, questionnaires and face to face discussions with the affected communities. The research methods are thus advantageous since they cover a wide range of people. The research methods show the effects of companion animals in a detailed manner. This makes the research method valid for this research paper. William O’Grady qualitative research method shows that in New Zealand dogs are the most used companion animals. This is from a research done through interviews in different homes (Lem et al 2013, p.287). The women use dogs for company and security purposes. The qualitative research shows that women who do not have companions use dogs for company. The percentage of such women is 48% from the findings of the interviews conducted to many women who lack homes and companions (Lem et al 2013, p.287). The companion animals assist youths in Canada to avoid mental health problems such as depression. The animals give company to the youths whose minds are controlled by the animals. This is a positive impact to the society since depression and mental problems in street families are solved. In Texas groups are formed to conduct the research. The groups cover a wide range of street families to show the effect of companion animals in their lives. The study groups are advantageous since the street youths interact freely with their fellow youths conducting the research. The study groups’ realized that 60% of the homeless youths adored their companion animals as they provided love and security to them. This made them protect those animals (Lem et al 2013, p.286).

            Phil Arkow in his quantitative research method used questionnaires and interviews to conduct the study. The research shows that human beings interact more with companion animals than other animals. Unlike in the qualitative paper, this paper does not cover a wide range of homes in America. It only focuses on a few homes which do not provide accurate information and conclusion towards the study of social impact of companion animals (Arkow, 2013, p.35). In his study again, Phil does not give the exact population of companion animals and the exact population of affected people from the interaction of human and animals. Communities from this research paper are seen to use companion animals for security purposes unlike in the other research paper where they are used to solve stress and mental problems. The quantitative research shows that companion animals are used for economic purposes. Different interviews done in American homes suggested that companion animals are used for economic purposes rather than solving mental problems (Arkow, 2013, p.34). This research shows that quantitative analysis emphasizes that cats, dogs, some reptiles and fish are the most companion animals in America. The study shows that many homes in America posses a single companion animal. This is from various surveys on the database used by pest management authorities. The companion animals are used mostly for purposes of market which in turn contributes to economic development (Arkow, 2013, p.34).

            Both research methods provide accurate information based on how companion animals are used. The research papers outline the different uses of companion animals. The two journals are termed as accurate and valid since they use interviews, questionnaires and database for their research thus enhancing accuracy in their findings. Other alternative research methods are necessary to be used which are not used in these journals (Lem et al 2013, p.35). Modern technologies should also be used to enhance accuracy of information unlike in these two papers. The papers depend much on the survey and report from the government which takes time. Enhancing modern technology promotes accurate and reliable information.

Conclusion

            From the above research paper, it is true to conclude that qualitative and quantitative research methods are used and valid in the sector of social sciences. Companion animals are described as useful animals in the society and contribute to positive impacts to the society. Both articles emphasize on the issue of companion animals and describe the population of those animals and how useful they are in a community. The articles are therefore valid for this particular research. Companion animals should therefore be protected as they are of help to different societies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Arkow, P. (2013). 'The Impact of Companion Animals on Social Capital and Community Violence: Setting Research, Policy and Program Agendas', Journal Of Sociology &  Social Welfare, 40, 4, pp. 33-56, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 April 2014.

Lem, M, Coe, J, Haley, D, Stone, E, & O'grady, W 2013, 'Effects of Companion Animal Ownership among Canadian Street-involved Youth: A Qualitative Analysis', Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare, 40, 4, pp. 285-304, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 April 2014.

 

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The Role of the Brain in Cognitive Functions

 

700- to 1,050- word paper in which you explain the role of the brain in cognitive functions. As a part of your explanation, describe what Phineas Gage’s accident revealed about how brain areas support cognitive function

Introduction

            The human brain can be described as one of the most important structures in the human body due to its ability to multi-task on continues basis. The brain plays various roles in the human body, which include regulation of different body process such as respiration, body balance among others. However, one of the most important roles is the cognitive role. This is because the cognitive role of the brain helps to distinguish the human from other animal species. This cognitive ability is mainly carried out by the cerebrum part of the brain. Moreover, this cognitive function mainly relies on the neurotransmitter process to coordinate the various signals that are sent between different areas of the brains. The cognitive function of the brain entails the movement of the signal from the right to the left side of the brain. The cognitive function of the brain include the various mental process such as the being attentive, memory, understanding of different language, problem solving learning, decision making among other functions. Impairment of cognitive function of the brain leads to decline in body process such as the thinking reasoning, problem solving among other functions.

            The various activities of the brain are co-determined by several factors, which include genetic information, epigenetic influences, and various signal exchange with entire body and the external environment (Pereira & Furlan, 2007). In relation to this the brain activity is located between the intersections of two cycles the epigenetic cycle which involve circular flux of information which mainly compose of the genetic expression of protein made from the genes. The other cycle involve the functional cycle, which is a circular of the efferent and afferent processes. The transfer of the stimuli in the brain are carried by sequence neuronal pulses called the spike trains which in turn trigger the opening of the transmitter vesicle into the synaptic cleft. These transmitters bind to the post-synaptic neuron and therefore transmitting the signal to the next neuron.

            The cognitive impairment in the human brain has been associated with various things. First, this impairment has been used as an independent predicator of excess mortality. In a study carried out Sachs et al (2011) where they screened 3957 patient to determine whether the cognitive impairment is associated with increased rate of long term mortality. From their study they were able to establish that the 57.4% of all the patients had a cognitive impairment, among this group 68.1% had a mild impairment. In addition they were also able to establish that among the patient with cognitive impairment were also associated with high mortality levels. The human brain is also believed to utilize high levels of glucose this is because the cognitive process of the brain requires a lot of energy. In relation to this a study carried out by Messier et al (2011) indicated that the glucose regulation is associated with cognitive functioning of the brain in young non diabetic adult. In their study they were able to establish that hypoglycemia causes brain damage, which is associated with dementia. This impairment leads to abnormalities in thinking.

            Various brain inflammation traumas resulting from brain injury may also affect the cognitive function of the brain. According to the study carried out by Greewood et al (2011) where they investigated whether the inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury can affect the cognitive ability of the brain. In their study they used 11 patient who were associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In order to carry out this study they used the positron emission tomography ligand [C](R)PK11195 (PK) and the structural magnetic resonance imaging. From their study they were able to find out that the level of the PK was significantly increased in the thalami, putamen, occipital corticle and the posterior limb of the internal capsules after the TBI. High levels of the PK binding in the thalamus were associated with more severe cognitive impairment.

            In relation to the this it is therefore evident that the accident that Phineas Gage suffered affected his brain and hence interfering with cognitive function of the brain (Macmillan, &. Lena, 2010). Before this accident Phineas is belived to have lead a normal life where he had worked in Hudson River Railway Road (HRRR). After his accident his life dramatically changed. In this case the equilibrium balance between his intellectual faculties seemed to have been destroyed after the accident. Some people hold the view that alteration was permanent since it affected his cognitive part of the brain, which in turn led to his death 11 years after the accident.

Conclusion

            From the above it is evident that the cognitive function of the brain is one of the most important functions of the brain. This is because of all things it helps to distinguish the human being from other animals. Failure of the cognitive function of the brain is normally associated with disorders such as dementia. The impairment of the cognitive function of the brain can be due to hypoglycemia or brain damage. From the case of Phineas Gage it is evident that the brain damage he got from the accident permanently affected his cognitive functioning of his brain, which eventually led to his death.

 

References

Macmillan, M. &. Lena, M.( 2010) Rehabilitating Phineas Gage Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 20 (5), 641–658

Pereira,A. & Furlan , F (2007). Biomolecular Information, BrainActivity and Cognitive Functions ARBS Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences 9:12-29

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Developmental Psychology 

Introduction

            Adolescence refers to the developmental period that involves transition from the childhood to adulthood. This stage may also be used to describe the teenage years that involves transition into puberty. However, various studies also indicate that the period can also extend beyond the teen years, it is therefore estimated that the adolescence period is between the age span of 10-24 years. The adolescence is stage is also further subdivided into various stages which include the early, middle, and the late adolescence stage. Some of the major physical developmental changes during the early adolescence include growth of body hair, increase in the height among other changes. In the late adolescence the young women are fully developed while most of the young men continue to gain height and weight.

Cognitive development

            During the early adolescence developmental stages an individual begins to develop the capacity for abstract thought. In addition, most of the adolescence in this early stage also becomes interested in the present issues more than future related issue. Moreover, in this early stages most of the adolescence expand their intellectual interest and develop a deeper moral thinking (Lerner & Steinberg, 2004). However, during the middle adolescent stage the individuals continue to expand the capacity for abstract thought. In addition during this middle stage individual also increase their moral reasoning and show a greater capacity for setting various goals. During the late adolescence period most of the individuals increase their ability to think ideas through. In addition, most of the adolescences in this period have an increased concern of the future events.

Impact of the cognitive developmental stage to an individual

            In order for the adolescence to undergo a successful cognitive developmental stage first, they must be encouraged to share their ideas and thought. Studies have shown that the adolescence must also be encouraged to think independently and develop their own ideas. In addition it is also important for the adolescence to be encouraged to engage in setting their goals. The cognitive development stage affects an individual in several ways. First, it affects the emotional processing in adolescence. In relation to this the adolescence face expression is one of the major sign that shows how individuals process their emotions. Most of the adolescence begins to worry about their appearance during this stage. This in turn leads to variation in their facial expressions. Some aspect such as the size of the nose, the eyes also contributes to the emotional expression in most of the adolescence.

            Most of the adolescence also experiences a feeling of imaginary audience. In relation to this most of the adolescence develops a feeling that the thought and notion that other people are interested with their actions and behaviors. This may therefore affect the performance of an individual both in class and in the other places. Perspective thinking is also another cognitive developmental feature associated with the adolescence stage. In relation to this, most of the adolescence engage into the reasoning about others, how they feel, believe, and think. This perspective thinking help an individual to feely interact with other people since they are able to put into other people mental shoe and take their perspective.

            Moral reasoning is another cognitive developmental change that has a considerable effect in the development of an individual. Various studies indicate that the individual in the adolescence stage reason according to his or her stage (Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein, 2011). However, by the age of 13 most of the adolescence begin to include the concept of mutual understanding in their reasoning. This is where the adolescence begins to have the view that what might be good to one person might not be good to another person. This development change therefore helps the adolescence to learn how to feely interact with other people. In addition, this moral reasoning ability helps the adolescence to maintain relationships. This is because most of the adolescence are able to imagine their multiple roles and understand how others reason. Poverty and economic resources are also known to affect some specific aspect of cognitive function. One of the major aspects that that is affected by the poverty and economic aspects of an individual include the memory capacity (vesque, 2011). In relation to this children form poor families in some case may have poor memories due to the poor economic condition they face. In addition, children from poor families may also be faced with chronic stress in their development. This chronic stress may affect the performance of adolescence in school. 

            Intellectual development is another aspect of cognitive development that individuals undergo during the adolescence. In relation to this an individual first undergoes componential intelligence where one is able to indentify various ways of solving problem. The individuals with well developed componential ability are able to effectively solve various life problems. In addition, during this developmental stage individuals are also able to develop their experiential intelligence. This implies that such individuals are able to cope and learn quickly new techniques. However, individuals with low or underdeveloped experiential intelligence during their adolescence stage are usually unable to cope and learn new techniques later in life.

            Cognitive developmental stages may have an impact in the adolescence pregnancy and prenatal care. First, the concrete thinking during the early childhood may prevent a teen from understanding that her behavior is closely connected to the future health of the child. However, during the late adolescence stage the increased ability to understand the perspective of others allows the teenage to understand the various relationships between her behavior and that of the child.

Impacts of psychosocial development

            During the adolescence stage an individuals undergoes a period of indentifying their identity. In relation to this, an individual tries to indentify his or her integrity in regard to behavior and thinking. In addition, during this stage the adolescence encounter identity versus role confusion according to the Erikson psychosocial model. An individual is therefore confused as to whether to adopt his or her own ideas or to incorporate the idea of others (Swanson, Edward, & Spencer, 2010). Some adolescence may adopt negative identity. In relation to the adolescence mainly feels that their role in the society is not appreciated or what the society expects them to accomplish is quite unattainable. During developing self-identity one must first the beliefs that one has on some aspects such as, height, goals among others. Second one must also set self-esteem where one first evaluates how he or she feels about certain situations. However, development of low self-esteem may in turn lead adverse side effect on the life of an individual. This is because it may lead to the development of a feeling of depression, lack of energy to pursue certain things. In addition, low self-esteem may lead to one having unrealistic expectations as well as having may doubt about the future.

            Various studies have shown that all adolescence must undergo behavioral development as they transform into adulthood. This in turn helps them to cope up with different aspects in the adult life. In relation to this, the adolescence must therefore learn to take certain risk in life, this help them to make some important decision in life. However, it has been established that some young people try out new ideas without considering the consequences of such ideas. This idea or decision in turn put many young people into certain threat that directly affect their life. For instance many young people engage into alcohol abuse therefore posing a great health risk to their bodies.

            The adolescence psychosocial development can also be broadly be divided into two category the social bonding and the social interaction perspective (Rubin, Bukowski,& Laursen,2011). It has therefore been established that social bonding contributes positively to the both emotional and physical development of an individual. However, the social interaction mainly focuses on the negative characteristics of an individual. Social bonding is an important aspect in the life of adolescence since it has an impact in the life of an individual. This is evident from the research conducted on teens showed that lack of close friends by the age of 16 resulted to depression symptom at the age of 22(Rubin, Bukowski,& Laursen,2011). In another study it was established that lack of friends during grade 1 resulted in feeling of lonely later in life. Friends also play important roles as moderators in the adolescence stage. Various studies have shown that having a close friend does not only help in ensuring that an individual to cope up with life but also help to protect against negative emotional consequences. This there clearly shows that friends play an important role in the psychosocial development of adolescence.

            Moreover the individual in this stage who receive proper encouragement during this stage usually emerge form this stage with a strong sense of self. In addition, the individuals who receive reinforcement through personal exploration also develop a strong sense of control and independence. However, those individuals during adolescence stage who remain unsure about their feeling and beliefs about issues usually feel insecure and confused about themselves. Another important psychosocial development that takes place during adolescence is the psychosocial competency. This is where the adolescence develops the ability to deal effectively with the demand and challenges of the real situation. Development of positive behavior

 help the adolescence to develop their psychosocial competency. However, failure to develop some of psychosocial competency skills leads to development of weak personality even in adulthood.

Conclusion

            From the above it is evident that the cognitive development plays an important role during the adolescence stage. The adolescence in this stage must therefore be encouraged to share their thought and ideas. This in turn help to ensure that the adolescence develop the right attitude toward life issues. Moreover, the adolescence must also be discouraged from worrying about their physical outlook. The psychosocial development also plays a critical role in the life and development of the adolescence. This is because certain aspects of psychosocial development such the psychosocial competency greatly influence the personality of an individual. Development of proper psychosocial competency should therefore be encouraged to ensure that an individual develop the right skills to him or her cope with adult life.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. D. (2004). Handbook of adolescent psychology. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Laursen, B. P. (2011). Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. New York: Guilford.

Steinberg, L. D., Vandell, D., & Bornstein, M. H. (2011). Development: Infancy through   adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Swanson, D. P., Edwards, M. C., & Spencer, M. B. (2010). Adolescence: Development During a Global Era. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

vesque, R. J. R. (2011). Encyclopedia of adolescence. New York: Springer.

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  • 700- to 1,050- word paper in which you explain the role of the brain in cognitive functions. As a part of your explanation, describe what Phineas Gage’s accident revealed about how brain areas support cognitive function
  • Introduction
  •             The human brain can be described as one of the most important structures in the human body due to its ability to multi-task on continues basis. The brain plays various roles in the human body, which include regulation of different body process such as respiration, body balance among others. However, one of the most important roles is the cognitive role. This is because the cognitive role of the brain helps to distinguish the human from other animal species. This cognitive ability is mainly carried out by the cerebrum part of the brain. Moreover, this cognitive function mainly relies on the neurotransmitter process to coordinate the various signals that are sent between different areas of the brains. The cognitive function of the brain entails the movement of the signal from the right to the left side of the brain. The cognitive function of the brain include the various mental process such as the being attentive, memory, understanding of different language, problem solving learning, decision making among other functions. Impairment of cognitive function of the brain leads to decline in body process such as the thinking reasoning, problem solving among other functions.

  • Ventricular Assisted
  • Abstract
  • There have been various researches done with regard to the development and the use of the artificial heart. This paper provides a brief review with regard to the research done on the use of the use of the artificial heart. The recent studies indicate that the artificial heart can also be used to support the native heart failure recovery among the infants. During the treatment of the acute heart failure the ventricular assist device have been used to provide ventricular support. in addition the discovery of artificial heart has also led to the emergence of some contemporary ethical issue where some people fear that the development lead to creation of machine with human characters. However analyses of the recent research related to artificial hear it is evident that there is need for a research to be done to lower various risks associated with heart transplant.

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Question 1
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder analysis using the ICF
  •             The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurobiological condition that affects the behaviour and the cognitive function of an individual. The condition normally affects 5-8% of the school going children (Millichap, 2010). The condition is known to affect the various body structure and function of the child. In this case the condition is known to cause impairment in the global mental function which in turn causes reading and writing disability. This in ability of the child to read plays a role in participatory restriction where a child is unable move effectively across the various education programs. The impairment in the mental functioning also leads to poor control of psychomotor function which affects the ability of the child to control their own behaviours. Moreover, most of the children with (ADHD) disorders also suffer communication disorder where they are unable to express their feeling to their peers. This inability of the child to express their feeling affects the ability to interact with other children hence a child with ADHD ends up living in isolation. The environmental factors with regard to the condition include the various general and specific education services and policies that help in addressing disorder.

  • Umbilical Cord Blood
  • Introduction
  • Various advances in the field of medicine and tissue transplant have helped to indentify the importance of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cell. This is because the umbilical cord blood is believed to be rich in multipotent stem cells, which include the CD34 and CD38 progenitor cells. These cells are known to have greater clonal expansion and proliferate capacity than other normal bone marrow cells. The UCB is therefore used in various clinical applications and in research where it is used in exploring the gene therapy, immune cell therapy, antibiotic efficacy and in indentifying new proteins. However the use of the UCB presents several ethical and regulatory challenges. One of the main reasons why the use of UCB presents ethical issues is the fact that obtaining it entails destruction of 4 to 5 day old human pre-embryo. This essay therefore presents some of the ethical dilemmas with regard to the use of the UCB and why such incidents occur. In addition the essay also present the possible ways of trying to prevent the various patients outcome. Most importantly the essay provides various future recommendations with regard to the use of umbilical cord blood banking.
  • Collection and storage of cord blood

  • Urinary System
  •             Urinary system refers to the organ system that has the obligation of storing and eliminating urine. The main purpose of the system is getting rid of waste products. In order to accomplish the process of elimination, the urinary system has various operating organs. The organs that comprise the system include kidneys and ureters (Funnell, Koutoukidis & Lawrence, 2008). Other organs in the urinary system are the bladder and urethra. All the parts in the urinary system assist in performing important functions for the benefit of the body. As illustrated below each part of the urinary system has an essential role that assist in creating a strong system (Funnel, 2008).

  • The process of the Digestive System
  •             Herbert the hamburger is about to take a journey from Washington to New York City. Before the start of his journey, Herbert decides to take the All-American meal in a restaurant near the bus stage. He decides to take this type of food after receiving an advice from a nutritionist to be feeding on balance diet.
  •             When Hebert starts taking food in the restaurant, various functions occur in his body. The digestion process starts from the time he takes his first food spoon. This is the start of mechanical digestion. In the mouth, the incisors help to cut the food while the canines are used to tear the food. The molars and the premolars are used for grinding the food into small pieces. The tongue helps in breaking the food into small particles by rolling it. The tongue also helps in mixing of the food. While he keeps on masticating the food, there is an addition of saliva and the tongue assists in swallowing by pushing the bolus backward. The epiglottis allows Herbert to swallow the food without having any difficulties. The salivary amylase helps in breaking the starch contained in Herbert’s meal. The mucin helps in the protection against various infections in the digestive system.

  • Sensation and Perception
  •             Sensation refers to how an individual uses various sensory organs in order to depict everything that is in the surrounding environment. Various organs in the human body play a significant role in relation to sensation. According to the roles that the sensory organs play in the body, an individual is able to make various interpretations of various issues in the environment. Perception refers to the interpretation that the sensation organs maker to the body in order to act accordingly. The perception process helps an individual in perceive various objects in the environment. Various organs that help in detecting what is in the environment include the following:

  • Attention Deficit Disorder
  1. Outline the major symptoms of the disorder discussed in the case
  •             Some of the major symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder include:
  1. Problems with attention: this means that children with this disease simply ignore various details. They are always distractive and fail to complete tasks.
  2. Hyperactive behavior: the children with this disease seem to be restless and unable to sit quietly.
  3. Excessive impulsivity: the children constantly interrupt and they are unable to wait their turn.
  4. Briefly describe the client’s background

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