Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

What are the effects of Dietary supplements

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Question We Can Help You To Answer

What are the cause of Childhood obesity and how can it be prevented?

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

Answer  the question with one reference

1.    In a hospitalized patient due to serious illness, the patient is placed on IV antibiotic for prolonged period of time, say 14 days. Does Vitamin K  has role to be a part of the patient's management? If it has a role, why and how it should be given?

2.    Patient developed resistance to resistant antimicrobial agents. What are the factors that lead to resistance? What is the mechanism involved in bacterial resistance?

88 Words  1 Pages

Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)

Paper instructions:

Written Assignment Guidelines
1. Instructions
a. Be sure to read through this document and comply with all instructions
b. Read each assignment guidelines carefully to ensure you comply with all the requirements
c. Review each grading rubric as you work on the assignment to ensure you earn the most points for your hard work
d. Save each document as – your last name and name of document
i. i.e. Smith Group Presentation
e. Only Word documents will be accepted; do not save and submit as PDFs
f. Submit to appropriate Drop Box by due date in above format

2. Evidence-Based Practice APA Paper Guidelines
Topic:  CAUTI

d. Paper requirements
i. Correct APA format – utilize all available resources
ii. Contents
1. Title page
2. Reference page
3. No abstract is needed
4. Body of paper (excluding title and reference pages) is to be 500 – 750 words
iii. Two main points as Level One headings
1. First main point is the topic you chose, i.e. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection
2. Second main point is Recommendations and Best Practices
iiii. References must include
1. nursing today: transition and trends: zerwekh & garneau - 9th. edition
2. One professional nursing journal article with the following requirements
a. Peer reviewed
b. First author is a nurse
c. At least 3 full pages in length
d. Dated between January 2013 – Present
3. One other ‘scholarly’ source; i.e. professional organization, CDC,

256 Words  1 Pages

Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Effects fast food have on the body


I.    Introduction
A.    Provide an attention grabber
Indentify topic
Give background summary
State purpose of your essay
State thesis of your argument
II.    Summary of Opposing Position
III.    Limitations of Opposing Position
A.    Limitation 1 of Opposing Position
B.    Limitation 2 of Opposing Position
C.    Limitation 3 of Opposing Position 
(Each limitation should have its own paragraph. There can be more than 3 limitations.)
IV.    Your understanding of the issue
V.    Reasons that your understanding is stronger
A.    Reason 1 
B.    Reason 2
C.    Reason 3
(Each reason should have its own paragraph. You can have more than 3 reasons.)
VI.    Conclusion
VII.    Works Cited list

Use similes, metaphors, and analogies when describing your position. Make your essay interesting!

Define unfamiliar or ambiguous terms and maintain that definition throughout the essay. Do not equivocate.

Enhance your argument by adding a descriptive title and one of the following: photograph, illustration, graph, diagram or chart, or embed a Youtube video, TED talk, etc. Use the standard manuscript format—double spaced, Times New Roman, 12 pt. type—including numbering the pages and providing your information in the top right corner of the first page.


206 Words  1 Pages

Question We Can Help You To Answer

Investigation and Modeling of Obesity and Low Back Pain in UAE

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

Apply knowledge gained pertaining to healthcare services in the United States, users of health information, health information functions, information systems or technology, and their use in healthcare. Analyze healthcare technologies and systems in terms of their strengths, weaknesses, and overall benefits to the organization and patient care.

For the Course Project, you are asked to research a healthcare organization, health information functions, and information technology used at this facility. Your report should identify the type of healthcare setting, identify services offered, identify users of health information and their needs, discuss how user needs are met, describe health information functions performed at this organization, and describe at least one information system used in this facility along with the system's functions and role in healthcare delivery. Application of knowledge attained in this class will support your ability to critically analyze your findings, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of this organization's health information technologies, and provide recommendations for improvement as may be appropriate to the situation. 

Examples of the types of healthcare organization that may be appropriate subjects for this type of project include hospitals, hospital systems, integrated healthcare systems, multispecialty medical clinics, physician practice offices, ambulatory surgical centers, mental health service providers, public health clinics, rehabilitation or long-term care facilities, insurance companies, pharmacies, Urgent care clinics, etc. The organization chosen must be complex enough to offer sufficient challenge and must be realistic in terms of information available at a level needed to complete the project in the required time frame. For example, an assisted living facility that does not make use of information systems would not be appropriate for this project.

There is no need to, nor would it be appropriate to access any confidential patient information in order to complete the project.

The best learning experience is obtained when you go through a dynamic communication process with people in the chosen healthcare organization. It is preferred that you interview someone who works in health information management (HIM director, coder, someone in the registration area, someone working with health information systems, release of information, billing, etc.); however, interviews with physicians, nurses, or other clinicians or administrative assistants will work, too. Yes, it may take several attempts and different modes of communications to secure an interview but you need to be persistent, proactive, and adaptive in order to achieve your goal: the interview. If your communication attempts and/or completion of the interview fails, you may consider using your own experience in using health information systems, or research AHIMA resources, articles, and case studies available online or library resources. In such cases, reach out to the professor for more guidance.

For successful completion of the project, please follow the guidelines below and comply with the criteria listed in the grading rubric for deliverables, organization, grammar, and resourcefulness.

Describe and analyze the chosen healthcare facility. 
Location - where is the organization located.
Type of setting - acute care hospital, skilled nursing facility, physicians office, surgical center, insurance company, etc.
Size of the facility - research the number of beds if applicable or other information on the size.
Ownership - private, government owned, proprietary, voluntary, etc.
Population served
Services offered
Any accreditation or certification facts (You can find these from the organization's website, by searching accrediting organizations, such as The Joint Commission at , or DNV GL Healthcare at or by asking questions during the interview). 
Work on this section after completing Week 2 content and reviewing Chapter 2 - 

Describe users of the health information and health information management functions at this organization.
Internal users, such as physicians, nurses, administrators, coders, support services, therapists, pharmacists, etc.)
External users depending on the type of the facility, such as accrediting agencies, payors, state department of health, CMS, and others as applicable.
Patients - do they access health information through a patient portal.
Explain whether this facility has paper medical records only, electronic only, or both/hybrid.
Describe how users access these records (in whatever format).
Describe health information functions performed at this organization such as patient registration, master patient index, quality checks, record filing, scanning, retrieval coding, billing, record storage, release of information, dictation, claims processing, health information transmission, registries, data abstraction, auditing, data transfer, patient education on using the patient portal, etc. (Note that not all of these functions may apply depending on the type of organization. You need to figure out as much as you can which ones apply and clarify that in your writing.)
Identify any health information functions that may be outsourced and performed by another company or vendor. If possible, obtain the name of that company.
Based on what you learned (through your readings, research, and the interview), share your interest in the health information functions - which ones seems more appealing to you at this time; why; what would you need to do to work in such function; and any other comments.
Work on this section after completing Week 3 content and reviewing Chapters 1 and 3 - Draft due on Week 4, Final Project due on Week 7.
Describe information technology or information systems used in the facility. 
Identify the name of the system and the vendor (e.g., Chart Locator software by 3M, Sunrise software by Eclipsys, etc.). If you have chosen to describe a technology, identify its name, such as Picture Archiving and Communication Technology (PACS). 
Describe the system as explained by the interviewer or other sources of information. Consider the following questions or prompts in your description:
What is the purpose or function; what does the system do? For example: registration, billing, coding, computerized physician order entry [CPOE], nursing notes, picture archiving communication system [PACS], medication administration, e-prescribing, claims processing, finance system, etc.)
What type of data is entered in it; where does the data come from (manual entry, transfer from another system, etc.); what does the system do with that data (store only?; allows editing?, allows updates?; enable transmission to another organization?)
Does the system generate any reports; does it have any analytical tools? If so, how is it used in decision-making?
Is this system considered part of the electronic health record (EHR)? If so, based on your knowledge, comment on whether the system would be considered a source, core clinical "EHR", supporting infrastructure, or connectivity system.
Does the system connect to or interface with other systems? If so, which ones? What does that connection or interface do? Why is it needed?
Is the system user friendly (easy to use)? Is the screen layout efficient?
Is the system secure? Does the system have built-in tools to assure data completeness and accuracy? Does the system go down often?
Do vendors support the maintenance and updates of the system?
What do users do if they have a problem or a glitch? Who helps them resolve it?
Classify the system (to the best of your ability) based on the description you are given (e.g., clinical, administrative, decision support, transaction-processing, MIS, EIS, etc.) and what you have learned from Sayles, chapters 14 and 15.
Describe strengths (e.g., ask about benefits of using this system; has it made a difference in the way care is delivered and decisions are made?).
Describe weaknesses (e.g., functions that the system does not currently perform and you would like it to perform).
Ask the interviewer on whether he/she has been involved during the systems development life cycle (SDLC). If so, try to learn about their input or impressions from that involvement. It could have been something related to planning, implementation, training, conversion, participation in a demo from a vendor who designed the system, etc.
Try to find out if the organization is part of a health information exchange (HIE). Also, try to find out if the organization is engaged in a recent AHIMA initiative, called information governance. Write your findings.
Ask if it is possible to see copies of a screenshot, policies and procedures, brochures, training guidelines, or anything else that they may be willing to share. Keep in mind that these are not required and you definitely, do not need to submit these as part of the project. They may simply help you gain better understanding. 
Identify any opportunities for improvement (based on what you learned from the interview, identification of weaknesses, additional research, or your knowledge about systems).
Work on this section after completing Weeks 4 and 5 content and reviewing Chapters 11 and 12 - Draft due on Week 4, Final Project due on Week 7.

Provide final comments and conclusions. 
Summarize your findings about the organization.
Summarize your findings about the health information functions.
Summarize your findings about the system or technology described.
Comment on your experience in reaching out to the organization and securing the interview (how difficult it was and what it took to achieve your goal).
Reflect on your overall feelings and learning experience as a result of working on this project. 
Suggest working on this section after completing all other sections of the project -

1519 Words  5 Pages

Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

Find two resources that discuss productive aging on the internet. Write a short description of each one, including why you think that the resource supports productive aging and how you would use this information in your future career

47 Words  1 Pages


 Nutrition and Health


  1. The state school board chairperson has asked you (a consultant on health and wellness) to write an informative paper about the recent changes to the breakfast and lunch programs to improve nutrition and health. The content will be turned into an informative handout for parents describing the four (4) major issues: economic situation, special needs (e.g., health) of the population being served, process, and benefits of the program.


It has come to our attention that for a child to perform well in school, it is essential for parents to feed them with balance diet. This is one of the major ways of helping children. It is clearly known that the minds of a child cannot fully be engaged in learning processes except if their bodies are well satisfied. Thus, it is essential to feed them adequately as they will be ready to learn when their bodies are well satisfied. The current changes in the breakfast and lunch programs in the schools have momentous impacts on the nutritional condition of child. It also plays an important role in fighting obesity that is known as a nationwide problem. The federal government has imposed laws on minimizing the problems that are associated with poor eating habits. This paper reviews the major issues and concerns on economic situation and health. Additionally, it presents the process and benefits of the entire program.

Economic situation

One of the major issues related to the recent changes in the school and breakfast is the entire economic situation. The fact that the government has raised 6% per meal repayment, the school has to meet these new nutrition standards (Institute of Medicine &Thomas, 1991). However, most of the districts school has issues that revenue from vending items will fall and hence reduce the entire profits. This in advance will create financial problems. Most researchers argue that schools do not incur any loss of revenue. However, after reviewing three results from nutritional policy, have found that some schools fears negative loss that are incurred from changes in foods options(Institute of Medicine &Thomas, 1991). Under this circumstance, the law has made it clear that it will offer free and affordable lunches. This in advance will benefit all children especially those from low income families. This will enable them to adopt good eating habits that will play a significant role in making them to live healthier and more industrious lives (Institute of Medicine &Thomas, 1991).

Special needs (e.g., health) of the population being served

           Another issue associated with this program is the fact that low income families cannot be in a position to afford to pay the school lunch and breakfast program. Additionally, those families who tend to have kids who are vulnerable for obesity epidemic cannot also be in a position to afford the payment (Institute of Medicine, 2010).   Additionally, that fact that our country has high risk of obesity epidemic, we find it necessary to change the lunch. This is because the obesity epidemic is caused by too much consumption of calorie intake. A study that was conducted by many authors in 2006 founded that large number of children with obesity were suffering from large amount of calories intake (Institute of Medicine, 2010). Additionally, poor eating habits have adverse effects on cognitive skills, behaviors, and the ability to concentrate in school. This is why the school has decided to change the breakfast and lunch programs in order to improve health among children with special needs. In relation to this, families with special needs or hectic life styles mostly depend on fast foods in order to feed their families. Thus, the parent found that it is necessary to change the lunch and breakfast programs in order to improve health among the children with special needs.

Describe the process (decisions, steps) involved in the program

Obesity is not only a national problem but also an international problem. Dealing with the root cause of the problem is the first process. Many young children are becoming overweight and obese at their young age. In order to reduce this problem, the health organizations are maintaining children to be exposed to healthy diets. Healthy diets are being emphasized in most schools where children are given unhealthy foods (Edelstein, 2006). The government has come up with rules and regulations in order to fight this issue of obesity. Most adults are obese as a result of their poor eating habits at a young age. The school lunch and breakfast program has come with nutritious food where parents are urged to make sure that children enjoy healthy food. Exercises are healthy and important in order to achieve a healthy life. Physical exercises maintain and balance the body weight which controls obesity. Exercises are not just used to control weight but have many benefits such as reducing depression and maintain the body healthy (Edelstein, 2006). They prevent the body from acquiring many other chronic diseases and cardiovascular diseases. The organization comes up with four major steps which include:

Nutrition assessment

This is where the organization collects data and information to know the most affected people by obesity problems. They get at the root cause of this obesity and identify how far the problem has affected the people.

Right diagnosis

This involves giving those suffering from obesity the right medication and treatment. Obese people are advised to practice regularly exercises (Edelstein, 2006). Nutrition guidance is provided to the patients suffering from the illness. Other people not suffering are also provided with the guidance in order to prevent this problem.

Intervention process

This involves the organization as well as the government intervening in order to solve this problem. The patients as well as other people are made aware of signs of obesity (Edelstein, 2006). This makes sure that the patient learns how to eat healthy and that all the assessment goals are being followed.


This process makes sure that patients are monitored in order to follow the correct treatment. It involves making sure that the assessment goals are achieved. This makes sure that the obesity problem is solved in the best way possible.

Explain the benefits of the program

The organizations are able to solve the problems in an organized and accurate manner. The care practice enables most patients get treatment at individual level at a less costly environment. The needs of patients are highly valued and maintained and decision making takings in to account the feelings of the patients Edelstein, S. (2006). The patients are well catered for and provided with healthy diets. They are given guidance and counseling on how to treat themselves even at homes. This ensures that many homes are benefiting from these health care programs by being given ways of living healthy. Most patients are encouraged on ways of finishing the correct diagnosis. The programs act as beneficial to most people suffering from obesity as well as others who want to learn those nutrition lessons.


Obesity is a major problem as learnt from the above discussion. Many organizations have come up in rescue of people living with this unhealthy condition. The organizations are beneficial and encouraged by the government since the cases of obesity are decreasing from the research carried out recently. Most organizations advocate for exercises. It is people’s duty and responsibilities to lead healthy lives in order to avoid such unhealthy conditions.










Edelstein, S. (2006). Nutrition in public health: A handbook for developing programs and services. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers

Institute of Medicine (U.S.)., & Thomas, P. R. (1991). Improving America's diet and health: From recommendations to action. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Institute of Medicine (U.S.)., Stallings, V. A., Suitor, C. W., & Taylor, C. L. (2010). School meals: Building blocks for healthy children. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.



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 Using Technology to Improve Research in Healthcare



Major technological interventions in regard to medical field have had essential effects in research and service delivery. Introduction of diverse social media platforms including Twitter, Facebook, Skype and MySpace have ensured interaction and sharing of information. These social media platforms give the users the opportunity to discuss health policies, trends in the medical field and ensure consultation in matters pertaining health. This research paper peeks on major technological development that has improved research in medical field. The results indicates that various development have been made in the recent past and has greatly influenced the field positively. They include use of various search engines, applications and social media for retrieval of medical information which ensure consultation and sharing of that information.

Using technology to improve research in healthcare


Development of new advanced technologies has had a positive impact in the healthcare. Essentially, breakthroughs and progress in technology have enhanced communication, treatments, information gathering and research in healthcare. Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets have various types of software designed in such a way to ensure effectiveness in use of various applications. In relation to the health field, experts have developed health applications that can be utilized as important tools to create health awareness, keep track of exercise, information, nutrition, and maintain motivation. Notably, the use of social media has proven to be an effective instrument in spreading information rapidly including health information to the target audience.

With a combination of health apps and sharing health information in social media, users have better chances to enhance and maintain their health goals. This research paper peek on examining how new technological health interventions and social media could be beneficial to healthcare with regard to service delivery and research.

Using technology and social media to enhance research and service delivery in healthcare

Social media is recognized as a comfort zone where users are at liberty to share any kind of information with ease. Popular social media platforms include Facebook, Twitter, Skype and WhatsApp. These platforms allow users to exchange information and relate effective even though in different locations. The key objective of social media developer was creating a platform that will allow and ensure relationship among different people. However, according to Kass-Hout & Alhinnawi (2013), social media has become an effective instrument in studying and obtaining public health data.

Health information has always been perceived as personal data, and it is solely an individual decision whether to share the information or keep it personal. Many people in the social media world share their information freely. In social media platform, users have the chance to discuss their challenges and mention emerging events, thus sharing important data. For instance, users might discuss an epidemic that has hit either an individual or a community (Kass-Hout & Hend, 2013).

According to Free et al (2013), social media has been proved to be an effective mean of ensuring reach of health facilities to the intended patients. Essentially, healthcare has taken advantage of the social media tools to ensure a wider geographical coverage and reach of doctor officers, public clinics and research facilities to a wider population. According to Anikeeva & Bywood (2013), healthcare facilities including hospitals are making use of social media to ensure contact with patients, launch public responsiveness campaigns, answer healthcare related questions and most importantly ensure community outreach. According to Free et al (2013), some high developed sites provide platforms that can maintain instant chats with health practitioners or nurses. These ensure exchange of medical information and enable the doctors and nurses to remind the patients on the need for tests and vaccinations.

In addition, users can debate a new health policy, whether it is relevant or if it contributes towards ruining health standards. In such discussion, people’s opinion regarding their health or a region’s health status is manifested effortlessly. Use of technology particularly social media platforms helps to establish correct and latest health information that is trivial in the development of a healthy nation.

Use of Health Web Based Applications

According to Cummiskey (2011), information technology has made life for many people easier and less time consuming through simpler ways of accomplishing difficult tasks such as in business, entertainment, health, and education sectors. In the health sector, information technology has been utilized in developing quality service. Health experts are now concerned with ensuring information technology contributes towards increasing accessibility to health data and to the public (Kass-Hout and Hend, 2013). In addition, technology has enhanced work efficiency and patient care. In this case, nurse and doctors use hand held computers or the tablets to record patient’s diagnosis and treatment information and monitor treatment process (Anikeeva & Bywood, 2013).

These electronic databases have been essential to the healthcare system as they ensure storage of vast medical information which can be retrieved with ease. Health institutions are a step ahead through the development of health applications in mobile devices. The use of major online search engines has enable prediction of trends in healthcare system (Free et al, 2013).  By effectively analyzing information related to health that is commonly searched by the users, healthcare system is able to determine and predict trend in medical field. Search engines such as Google, Yahoo, eBay, Bing and Amazon have proved to be effective in ensuring retrieval of health related information and records with ease (Free et al, 2013).

            Easy use of various search engines have enable medical experts to respond to changes and outbreaks of diseases based on the predicted trend. According to, as people continue to use these search engines, more and more information related to medical field will be present and thus ensure more scientific studies. From ensuring reduced medical, patient education and administrative costs, web based applications used by hospitals, doctors and nurses   have been proved to make hospitals and the health field and large more eco friendly. Various web based applications have been developed. For instance, CV Surgery risk application is one of the most recent discoveries in the health field that helps the doctors to estimate the risk of conducting a particular surgery.

            More importantly, the information available in the Internet through applications constitutes medical history, physical education and context awareness. Apple is the dominant service provider of applications in the field of medical and health related issues with more than 200 health-based application. According to Liu, et al. (2011), most of the application tools are associated with medical history, and they constitute reference from online journals, websites and newspapers (Liu,, 2011). People that access such information, do so for the purposes of confirming their prior knowledge in health, lest do they engage in finding new information. Apple is in a bid to develop other applications that can incorporate other tools besides from reference avenues.

            Apple developers are currently working on installation that would ensure three-dimensional representations, in order to make a comprehensive picture for the user. Three-dimensional pictures are more attractive to the eye and provide more details then single and two-dimensional pictures. When pictures on the application are attractive and provide more details, the number of users would significantly increase. In this case, smart phones and other web based application in health field have ensured that can use their touch screen or the Smartphone to fill in patient’s form before going for consultation from a doctor.

            More importantly, the doctors and nurses have the advantage to use the application graphics which contain images as a way of finding explanation and doing diagnosis (Free et al, 2013). Medical experts together with health applications developers are worried that there is a lot of untapped potential in the mobile industry. Therefore, they are focused on developing more applications, which would offer more applications. Apple in association with health professionals are working together to develop more application so as to attract more users and nurture a healthy population.


Smartphone application Usage

            Smart phones are the new wave in information technology, this is confirmed by the number of people who own and use smart phones. This trend is clearly revealed among the teenagers where about 70 percent of them in the United Sates own smart phones (Cummiskey, 2011). Smart phones due to its fast speed and mass storage capacity have the ability to house applications, which can perform a number of tasks (Cummiskey, 2011). Smart phones are able to support applications based on education, industrialization, politics, music, health, and weather. However, teenagers who are the majority users of these devices, utilize Smartphone majorly for entertainment and social networking.

            Given the urgency of health information, developers have been designing applications that can easily provide required health data to users. Most of these applications are incorporated in smart phones including the Ipad. Essentially, healthcare field is making use of smart phone applications to explore diverse issues and concerns revolving around the field. The Ipad in this regard has been proved to be fundamental ensuring digital files for the hospital and the patients. In order to attract users, developers of Smartphone applications have ensured development of relevant applications that can be used in diverse fields (Handel, 2011). Presence of numerous applications in smart phones enables the users to conduct diverse activities using the phone. For instance, the user is a position to forward patient’s information to the doctor with ease. In addition, the applications at the same time enable the nurses and doctors to utilize graphics designed to ease the process of diagnosis and explanation.

            According to, smart phones also provide applications that can ensure scanning of medical record to determine fiscal management. The application is referred to as Remotescan and aims to ensure accountability and transparence in diverse fields including medical field (Handel, 2011). Technological advancement in regard to development of smart phones has brought out the issue of paperless nurse or doctor’s office. This implies that the use of diverse applications ensured by the Smartphone will enable the doctors to monitor patient’s treatment and the comfort of their office.

            According to Handel (2011), with the help of Smartphone, doctors and nurses are in a position to access numerous medical records. They enable the doctors to peek on various case studies online and have vast medical information history regarding the patient. Technology has created a platform that ensures easy consultation between doctors and other medical officers worldwide. This is possible with the help of videos, e-mail, conference facilities and texts (Coomes et al, 2012). This has resulted to a unique practice in medical field referred to as telemedicine. This has especially proved to be essential to medical officers and doctors in remote areas and under developed regions (Benavides-Vaello et al, 2013).

            According to McInnes & Hogan (2013), this gives the doctor a chance to research, diagnosis and treatment of the identified condition without access to a highly sophisticated hospital. For instance, telemedicine technology was effectively used in Haiti in the year 2010 (Bricon & Newman, 2007). Social media on the other hand has been proved to be effective as a mean of reaching wider population and ensuring information on time.


            From the above research, one can conclude that technology particularly social media and web based applications have greatly contributed to effective execution of research in medical field. Social media provides platforms and tools that enable users including medical officers and doctors to share information regard to healthcare. Social media ensures wider geographical coverage and wider population.

            The research also indicates that smart phones and the applications there in plays an essential role in ensuring access to medical information, easing treatment process for instance the case of CV Surgery risk application. The applications and the smart phones enable the doctors and other medical officers to consult each other regarding to a particular condition. As evident from the research, technology has enhanced medical research with the help of internet with ensured a key source of information related to medical field. In addition, technology particularly social media has ensured access of healthy facilities by the patients.






















Anikeeva, O., & Bywood, P. (2013). Social media in primary health care: Opportunities to enhance education, communication and collaboration among professionals in rural and remote locations Social media in primary health care: Opportunities to enhance education, communication and.. Australian Journal Of Rural Health, 21(2), 132-134.

Benavides-Vaello, S., Strode, A., & Sheeran, B. (2013). Using Technology in the Delivery of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment in Rural Communities: A Review. Journal Of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 40(1), 111-120.

Bricon-Souf, N., & Newman, C. R. (2007). Context awareness in health care: A review. International journal of medical informatics76(1), 2-12.

Coomes, C. M., Lewis, M. A., Uhrig, J. D., Furberg, R. D., Harris, J. L., & Bann, C. M. (2012). Beyond reminders: a conceptual framework for using short message service to promote prevention and improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for people living with HIV. AIDS Care, 24(3), 348-357.

Cummiskey, M. (2011). There's an app for that smartphone use in health and physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(8), 24-29.

Free, C., Phillips, G., Watson, L., Galli, L., Felix, L., Edwards, P., & ... Haines, A. (2013). The             Effectiveness of Mobile-Health Technologies to Improve Health Care Service Delivery  Processes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Plos Medicine, 10(1), 1-26.

Handel, M. J. (2011). mHealth (Mobile Health)—Using Apps for Health and Wellness. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 7(4), 256-261.

Kass-Hout, T. A., & Alhinnawi, H. (2013). Social media in public health. British medical bulletin, 108(1), 5-24.

Liu, C., Zhu, Q., Holroyd, K. A., & Seng, E. K. (2011). Status and trends of mobile-health applications for iOS devices: A developer's perspective. Journal of Systems and Software,84(11), 2022-2033.

McInnes, D., Li, A. E., & Hogan, T. P. (2013). Opportunities for Engaging Low-Income, Vulnerable Populations in Health Care: A Systematic Review of Homeless Persons' Access to and Use of Information Technologies. American Journal Of Public Health,   103(S2), e11-e24.

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 Type 1 Diabetes


Type 1 diabetes known commonly as T1D is a type of mellitus diabetes where the pancreas is unable to produce hormone insulin which enables individuals generate energy from the food eaten. It was previously referred to as juvenile diabetes since it is common in young adults as well as children. A good percentage of Americans live with this condition with an approximation of three million infected people. Beta cells located at the pancreas are the key producers of hormone increase which are destroyed by T1D. It is a long term illness since it remains incurable and is not preventable especially in kids who are not even exposed to unhealthy lifestyles. T1D mainly affects children, teenagers and the youths where uncontrolled amounts of glucose are present in the blood. It is a chronic condition where most children born with it live with the disease. The causes are not very clear thus prevention becomes impossible. Less than 5% people having diabetes suffer from T1D. Many people especially kids have leant methods of living with this condition through use of insulin therapy, exercises and health eating habits. Exercises are encouraged to people suffering from this dangerous condition. This type of disease has is associated with generic factors and conditions. It is commonly viewed as an inherited condition but it is not yet proved scientifically. This essay will discuss the causes, problems associated with this condition, possible solutions and healthy living lifestyles for people living with this condition. It will also outline the symptoms and signs, best solutions, and discuss unhealthy lifestyles for people living with the condition and ways of treating T1D.

Symptoms and signs of Type 1 Diabetes

There are many symptoms associated with this kind of condition. A continuous feeling of thirst is one key sign. Frequent urination is a sign associated with this kind of condition. Increased weight and hunger as well as reduced weight in some people are also other signs to watch out especially in kids. Loss as well as increase of appetite is another sign associated with this condition. Poor vision is associated with this kind of condition (Levy, 2011, p.211). Most people who think they have the condition have heavy breathing and a bad odor in the breath. Drying of the skin and vomiting are some other signs. Other people can fall unconscious as a result of this disease. These are the most important signs for parents to watch out in order to maintain the health of their children. Once someone experiences these signs seeking medical attention from a doctor is the best solution in order for treatment process to begin.

Causes of Type 1 Diabetes

One of the causes is genetic factors. Children are the risk of developing diabetes if their mothers, fathers and siblings suffer from this condition. A child is more likely to suffer diabetes by 10% if the father and the siblings suffer from the condition. If the mother is suffering from the disease the percentage of a child contacting the disease is 4% showing that mothers are not likely to cause diabetes to the children. It is therefore viewed as being inherited as a result of the genetic make up which is of cause unavoidable. The second cause of the condition is due to environmental conditions and factors (Sperling, 2003, p.91). There are countries where living there will increase the risk of contacting the disease especially in Europe countries. Some people do not inherit it genetically but it is triggered by environmental factors since some places are prone to the disease than others. People migrating to some parts of Europe might contact the disease since they are not well adapted to that environment and thus the immune system is weakened. The next cause of T1D is exposure to certain dangerous viruses. Some virus might damage the beta cells thus infecting them with those dangerous viruses (Platt et al, p.344). When the beta cells in the pancreas are attacked they reduce the hormone insulin which results to the condition. The viruses’ damage beta cells though some people do not actually suffer even when the beta cells are damaged but genetic factors trigger the condition and one suffered from the disease. Diet is also a major contributing factor of T1D disease. When a child is not breastfeed as required by medical doctors, the child suffers low immunity system and is at a high chance of getting the disease. The child being exposed to unhygienic and unhealthy living standards makes the child’s immune system to remain poor thus triggering this kind of disease. Children should be well breastfed and taken care of which will avoid such unhealthy conditions and chronic disorders.

T1D is a condition mainly suffered by children since many parents expose them to unhealthy environments and neglect them at an early age where children require extra care and medical attention (Platt et al, p.344). T1D is mostly inherited thus parents should take their children to seek medical care at an early age. The next cause of the type 1 diabetes is exposure to chemicals and dangerous drugs. Some drugs are seen to cause harm to the beta cells as well as other cells in the pancreas. Pyrinuron is an example of an insecticide which causes harm to the pancreatic beta cells when one is exposed to it intentionally or accidentally and the results are low insulin production which causes T1D. Zanosar is an example of a chemical used in pancreatic therapy for patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. This chemical was banned in several United States but it is still used in some countries (Platt et al, p.344). This chemical cause harms to the pancreatic beta cells which results to the type 1 diabetes. The damage of beta cells results to reduced insulin production which is the major cause of type 1 diabetes. There are other pancreatic infections such as traumas and tumors which results to low insulin production thereby triggering the type 1 diabetes.

Problems associated with Type 1 Diabetes

It causes severe body damages. The increased amount of glucose level in the blood causes damage to the nerve system. It also damages blood vessels taking blood to the kidney, heart and the eyes which results to poor vision and later total blindness. The damage of blood vessels can result to destruction of artery vessels which can cause stroke, heart failure and a heart attack. Heart attacks and failure result can lead to deaths which should be avoided especially in small kids. It causes vomiting, diarrhea and constipation as part of short term effects of nerve cell damages located in the digestive system. Another problem associate with T1D is kidney diseases and infections (Rubin, 2013, P.112). T1D cause the blockage of small blood vessels in the kidney thereby causing the kidney to work less competent. This causes long term effects such as kidney failure which requires medical treatment in order to treat the infected kidneys. T1D is a leading contributor to kidney diseases and infections which eventually results to death. Foot complications and problems are some outcomes of type 1 diabetes. The nerves taking blood to the foot are damaged causing cuts and food ulcers (Rubin, 2013, P.112). In given 1O people suffering from T1D, one person suffers from the foot ulcers which results to complicated health problems. People whose nerves at the feet are damaged are advised to visit their doctors frequently in order to avoid severe feet complications and infections. Feet examination is mandatory for people suffering from T1D in order to avoid severe foot complicated infections.

Skin infections and complications are rampant in people living with diabetes. The skin becomes rough and dry especially in young children as a result of the fungal and related bacteria infections. As a result of unhygienic exposure, gum disease is likely to occur as a result of type 1 diabetes. Osteoporosis is also a condition associated with T1D where weak bones are formed instead of strong and supportive bones. Another major problem is complications during pregnancy (Herrath, 2001, p.87). Increase in blood sugars is dangerous to both the infant and the mother. Failure to control T1D leads to still births, increase cases of miscarriages and defects on the born babies. Diabetic ketoacidosis is triggered by uncontrolled T1D especially in mothers. Mothers develop sight problems and high blood pressure during pregnancy which is dangerous and can lead to death of both the mother and the baby (Herrath, 2001, p.87). T1D is also associated with hearing complications. People suffering from T1D experience hearing problems which is a short term effect of this disease. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes causes body damages and lastly results to death of infected individuals.

Type 1 diabetes results to depression which causes more complications to the disease. Hyperglycemia is increased in patients with diabetes who are depressed. Eye complications are rampant with this type of diabetes (Hanas, 2009, p.134). It is a leading factor for causes of blindness especially in people suffering from the disease. Retinopathy is the major eye infection caused by T1D where the retina is severely damaged. Cataracts and glaucoma are risk factors associated with this kind of disease (Hanas, 2009, p.134). Blood vessels and capillaries are destroyed which causes damages to the retina since blood clots. This results to poor sight which in turn leads to permanent blindness.

Solutions to people living with Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin treatment is one solution provided to people living with diabetes since there is not yet a cure for this type of diabetes. Insulin treatment is necessary in order to regulate amount of insulin and make it enough for the body to use. Different preparations are used in insulin control and regulations which are capable of lasting for long hours but are necessary in people living with T1D. Insulin injections are commonly used instead of injections to enable them get in to the blood stream fast (Hanas, 2007, p.265). Tablets can easily be digested in the stomach that is why medical doctors advocate for insulin injections. People are taught how to inject themselves and various methods of disposing those needles. Injections are injected two or four times daily depending on the prescription given by the doctor. Insulin pump therapy is another solution to control T1D as prescribed by medical doctors. An insulin pump is a small device used to hold insulin in the body (Hanas, 2007, p.265). The pump is placed in the body which controls the amount of insulin to the required levels. It is an alternative method of controlling insulin instead of using injections. The patients is taught on how to close check the amount of insulin in the body when using the pump and often going for medical checkups to ensure that the insulin is well controlled. The insulin pump is well used by children as well as adults and teenagers. It is used and appropriate for all people suffering from type 1 diabetes depending on doctors’ prescriptions (Hanas, 2007, p.265). It is most suitable for patients with low amounts of glucose in their blood since it is supposed to be regulated and balanced.

Exercises are important even to people not living with the condition. Exercises make the body remain active and healthy. It burns away the amounts of cholesterol and unwanted fats by the body. Exercises enable the body to remain with the required amounts of cholesterol and fats. Exercises are important for infected people since they reduce the level of blood pressure and control the heart bits rate. Exercises enable easier breathing by controlling the lungs. The lungs ensure that the right amount of oxygen required in the body is available. This is made possible by exercising the body regularly. Exercises reduce the depression and stress level as both the body and mind are occupied by the exercises. Exercises ensure that the body is free from other chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, high blood pressure and heart infections and diseases. Exercises are therefore important for the body and should be performed on daily basis (Gallen, 2012, p.114). To avoid multiplication of the virus to the whole body, infected people should practice enjoyable exercises daily. Stress is also reduced through exercises. There are times when the infected person should not exercise. If the body is in pain one should not exercise because it leads to more injury. At times joints can swell, one can feel extremely tired and dizzy, and one can have sores all over the body. This are times when one should not exercises because exercising will not easy the pain. When the infected person feels tired and dizzy at the midst of the exercise, one should not continue with the exercise (Gallen, 2012, p.114). The infected person should call his doctor for treatment and examination purposes. The doctor should then recommend the appropriate exercises for the patient. Though exercises are crucial, at times the body is resistant and should not be forced because negative consequences are likely to be suffered.

Psychiatrist and psychologist should encourage infected people on ways of practicing and living healthy lives. Infected people should avoid drug abuse as this encourages depression. Alcohol and other substances should not be consumed by infected people as a way of maintaining their health status strong and for long term basis. The required dosage and medication given to the infected patients should be administered right and followed according to the doctors prescriptions (Eisenbarth, 2004, p.234). Depression should be avoided since it can result to mental illnesses. No matter the extent of T1D condition, patients’ should not suffer depression problems. The right therapy and treatment should be followed constantly. Medical checkups are needed where doctors should examine the patients to ensure that they remain healthy and can perform activities as if they are not sick. Parents are encouraged to support their children who suffer from this condition since denying them support increases cases of depression. They should be given proper medical care and support as well as education support.

People living with T1D are encouraged not to smoke. Patients should get foot check ups regularly as well as eye check ups. This reduces the chances of becoming totally blind and developing severe foot ulcers. Patients should ensure that they wear the correct type of shoes as advised by medical doctors. Patients should ensure that they visit doctors for medical check ups in order for insulin levels to be controlled which will reduce other major long term chronic illnesses.


From the above discussion it is evidently seen that T1D is a common condition in all people especially children. It is inherited and cause by other factors such as environmental, exposure to chemicals and harmful viruses. It cannot be prevented neither cured but can be regulated and controlled through medical advise and treatment. Eating habits could also be made healthy in order to control the T1D condition. Regulation takes time but it should be completed. T1D patients should attend guidance and counseling sessions as well as nutrition clinics in order to ensure good health. T1D is just like any other illness and infected people should not be left hopeless and isolated. With healthy diets, medical checkups and regular exercises the infected people always remain strong.




Eisenbarth, G. S. 2004. Immunology of type 1 diabetes. New York [u.a.], Kluwer Acad./Plenum   Publ.

Gallen, I. 2012. Type 1 diabetes: clinical management of the athlete. London, Springer.

Hanas, R. 2007. Type 1 diabetes: a guide for children, adolescents, young adults - and their caregivers, everything you need to know to become an expert on your own diabetes. New York, NY, Marlowe.

Hanas, R. 2009. Type 1 diabetes in children, adolescents and young adults: how to become an expert on your own diabetes. London, Class Pub.

Herrath, M. G. V. 2001. Molecular pathology of type 1 diabetes mellitus: 10 tables. Basel [u.a.], Karger

Levy, D. 2011. Type 1 diabetes. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Platt, E., Olshan, J. S., & Waterman, M. 2012. 100 questions & answers about your child's type 1 diabetes. Sudbury, MA, Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Rubin, A. L. 2013. Type 1 diabetes for dummies. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley & Sons.

Sperling, M. A. 2003. Type 1 diabetes: etiology and treatment. Totowa, N.J.






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Depression and exercise with patients suffering from HIV



            AIDS is a chronic disease which affects large numbers of people. People who are affected by the virus can perform exercises to their bodies for them to live long, strong and healthy. People affected by the virus can eat healthy diets, control their stress levels efficiently, enough and adequate sleep and have exercises regularly. These will enable them live more and maintain health status.

Relationship between HIV and Exercises

            Various research and analysis show that people living with the HIV virus that practices regular exercises increase the amount of blood in their bodies and reduce the chances of getting the AIDS disease (Lemura, 2004, p.475). Exercises are not only practiced at the gyms as many people believe. Exercises can be practiced at various homes with the presence of instructors such that people living with this condition easily exercise their bodies. Exercises done should be enjoyable and right to the patients. The first choice of the exercise to start with is important such that a wrong choice of the exercise will impact negatively to the HIV victim (Lemura, 2004, p.475). Exercises should be made enjoyable and which one can handle since exercises play a major role in regulating multiplication of the HIV virus in the body.

Importance of Exercises

            Exercises are important even to people not living with the condition. Exercises make the body remain active and healthy. It burns away the amounts of cholesterol and unwanted fats by the body. Exercises enable the body to remain with the required amounts of cholesterol and fats. Exercises are important for infected people since they reduce the level of blood pressure and control the heart bits rate (Frontera, et al, 2006, p.262). Exercises enable easier breathing by controlling the lungs. The lungs ensure that the right amount of oxygen required in the body is available. This is made possible by exercising the body regularly. Exercises reduce the depression and stress level as both the body and mind are occupied by the exercises. Exercises ensure that the body is free from other chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, high blood pressure and heart infections and diseases. Exercises are therefore important for the body and should be performed on daily basis. To avoid multiplication of the virus to the whole body, infected people should practice enjoyable exercises daily. Stress is also reduced through exercises (Frontera, et al, 2006, p.262). There are times when the infected person should not exercise. If the body is in pain one should not exercise because it leads to more injury. At times joints can swell, one can feel extremely tired and dizzy, and one can have sores all over the body. This are times when one should not exercises because exercising will not easy the pain. When the infected person feels tired and dizzy at the midst of the exercise, one should not continue with the exercise. The infected person should call his doctor for treatment and examination purposes. The doctor should then recommend the appropriate exercises for the patient. Though exercises are crucial, at times the body is resistant and should not be forced because negative consequences are likely to be suffered (Frontera, et al, 2006, p.262).

Exercise Guidelines for Infected People

            One should not overdo the exercise. This will stress the body and can make the health deteriorate. At first simple exercises should be performed which do not require much energy loss. The exercising time should be adjusted and followed without any overdo. The diet should be healthy and drinking made regular. Drinks should be made a priority in people living with the condition. They should drink water before and after exercises so that the liquid lost from the body cab be replaced immediately. Alcohol and other unhealthy drinks should be avoided as they make the body weak (Volberding, 2008, p.274). Healthy food should be consumed in order to avoid loss of weight since exercises makes the body loose weight. Meals should be eaten before the exercise time in order to enable the body to remain active. Weight training is necessary for infected people. Cardiovascular trainings and exercises are required as they boost the rate of oxygenation and blood flow within the body. Such trainings include dancing, jogging and swimming which are enjoyable and interesting. These exercises do not require much energy thus infected people prefer them (Volberding, 2008, p.274). Walking over measurable distances, using stairs to reach tall buildings instead of lifts and escalators are examples of activities which helps the body remain active and healthy even at old age.

Relationship of Depression and HIV

            Depression affects infected patients in a negative way. Depression is an illness which causes more injury to the already infected person. There are several signs of depression which people should look out for in order to assist the infected people. Constant loss of appetite, sadness and lack of interest in enjoyable and interesting activities, constant tiredness and dizziness, suicidal and death thoughts are examples of signs and symptoms of depression and stress. Other infected people feel hopeless and worthless which amounts to total depression (Buckley, & Gluckman, 2002, p.213). Once the patient is depressed, treatment is started immediately and can take a long time to be cured. Medications and therapies are advocated to such depressed patients. They are encouraged to have ample sleeping time rest. Patients are required to have regular exercises which enable the body to remain occupied and active. The patients who are depressed often require care from their families. Families should show love and treat infected people well as a way of keeping them free from stress. Constant distress contributes to negative impacts not only to the body but to the mind as well. Depression as an illness causes death thereby it needs to be avoided.

Treatment and Ways of Reducing Depression

            Psychiatrist and psychologist should encourage infected people on ways of practicing and living healthy lives. Infected people should avoid drug abuse as this encourages depression (Fernandez, & Ruiz, 2006, p.93). Alcohol and other substances should not be consumed by infected people as a way of maintaining their health status strong and for long term basis. The required dosage and medication given to the infected patients should be administered right and followed according to the doctors prescriptions. Depression should be avoided since it can result to mental illnesses. No matter the extent of HIV virus, patients’ should not suffer depression problems. The right therapy and treatment should be followed constantly (Fernandez, & Ruiz, 2006, p.93). Medical checkups are needed where doctors should examine the patients to ensure that they remain healthy and can perform activities as if they are not sick.


            Treatment takes time but it should be completed. AIDS patients should attend guidance and counseling sessions as well as nutrition clinics in order to ensure good health. HIV is just like any other illness and infected people should not be left hopeless and isolated. With healthy diets, medical checkups and regular exercises the infected people always remain strong.



Buckley, R. M., & Gluckman, S. J. 2002. HIV infection in primary care. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders

Fernandez, F., & Ruiz, P. 2006. Psychiatric aspects of HIV/AIDS. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.        

Frontera, W. R., Slovik, D. M., & Dawson, D. M. 2006. Exercise in rehabilitation medicine. Leeds, Human Kinetics.

Lemura, L. M. 2004. Clinical exercise physiology: application and physiological principles. Philadelphia [u.a.], Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Volberding, P. 2008. Global HIV/AIDS medicine. Philadelphia, PA, Saunders/Elsevier.



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Marijuana Abuse and Its Effects on Adolescents   

 How Does Adolescent Marijuana Abuse Affect Adolescent Development


Marijuana is an illicit drug mostly used by teens and especially students. The teens prefer it to other drugs since it is considered non toxic thus less harmful and dangerous. Marijuana can only cause death when overdosed. Marijuana is smoked just like cigarettes and is legal in most countries. In addition, it has been part of humans as they rely on it as a form of medicine especially those with chest problems. Marijuana is a powerful stimulant especially to those patients suffering from AIDS disease. The patients are able to get appetite by using marijuana and also get body protection against dangerous tumors.

Adolescent development can be defined as the period where many development changes are occurring. It is also the time when the intellectual capacity of a young person is expanding and the peers and friends influence increases. Adolescent use of marijuana is actually linked to a range of both social and developmental problems especially memory loss problems. In addition many researchers have proved that the developing teenage and youthful brain maybe particularly vulnerable to excessive use of marijuana. In a new study scientists report that those teens who smoke marijuana daily for about three years have got abnormal changes in their brain structures which are related to working memory and also performed poorly on the memory tasks given.

Effects of marijuana on adolescents

Long term effects of marijuana smoking include collapsing and shrinking of memory related structures in the brain thus reflecting a possible decrease in the neuron volume (Hesse& Thylstrup, 2013).

In some countries the supply, use, sale, possession and cultivation of marijuana could result in criminal prosecution thus suffering serious consequences especially being jailed and also chances of paying high bails in the courts.

Marijuana results in increase in the dependency rate by young people who suffer loss of memory

Marijuana can result in relationship problems especially with family members and other friends who don’t use the marijuana

The cost of marijuana can result in financial problems and difficulties since it is highly addictive and thus money is required to purchase the drug regularly.

Marijuana use can also trigger mental illnesses in young people making them unproductive. It brings long term effects and consequences to the bodies of the young adolescents.

Problems associated with marijuana smoking by adolescents

Many of the young smokers are at a risk of suffering from lung cancer which is a very dangerous illness and which later results to deaths. There is also a risk of the users developing head and neck cancers as compared to those using tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains three times more the amount of tar found in tobacco smoke and which is a carcinogen thus most young smokers are at a great risk of suffering from this dangerous disease (Riggs & Pentz, 2009). In addition, long term marijuana smokers are prone to develop the bullous lung disease at a younger age than tobacco smokers, possibly because the smokers tend to inhale more deeply and also hold very hot smoke in their lung up to four times longer. This disease causes difficulties in breathing and also causes destruction in the lung tissues thus making the body weak and less immune.

Heavy marijuana smoking results in infertility cases especially in young men. Its continuous use lowers men’s testorestrone levels and sperm count and quality. Men who smoke marijuana more often have less seminal fluid, a lower total sperm count and also their sperms behave abnormally and this results to infertility cases. Marijuana also decreases libido. This result in unproductivity thus can result in decrease in the population.

Marijuana results in poor performance in school, increased absence from schools and results in increased cases of drop outs thus less people graduate thus increasing dependency rate by the young generation. Marijuana use results in high levels of criminal behavior for example theft cases especially theft of motor vehicles. This is a problem in most countries.

Marijuana use at an early age according to studies done shows that the users are at a high risk of later developing problems mostly characterized by social disadvantages and peer influences and inflations (Riggs & Pentz, 2009). Marijuana is highly addictive and the users suffer withdrawal symptoms which include: aggression, anxiety, decrease in appetite and depression. Marijuana use results in impaired emotional development, chances of denial, increased depression, anxiety and other mental illnesses. This can result in suicidal thoughts contributing to early deaths.

.           Marijuana smoking in young people results in immature sexual activity which is a contributing factor in cases of unwanted and unplanned pregnancies. This results in abortions which later causes deaths in young ladies. Several studies have shown that regular use of marijuana cause birth effects and inadequate fetal growth. In addition, it leads to increase in the number of street families.

Marijuana use has resulted to many deaths through accidents especially road accidents. Marijuana use increases the driver’s ability to drive at high speeds resulting to accidents and later deaths. Marijuana is the most used drug since it is available, has got low prices, and has a widespread social tolerance. Young people account for the disproportionate number of road traffic accidents. According to studies, it is seen that the fatality rate of accidents for teenagers is four times that of adult drivers. Drivers under the age of twenty five account for almost a quarter of all traffic fatalities. Most young drivers under the influence of marijuana drive at very high speeds are very overconfident while driving and also drive during late nights thus causing deaths and physical injuries.

Solutions to the problems associated with adolescent marijuana smokers

Parents should start early.

It is clear that children whose parents have got a positive attitude towards marijuana smoking are five more times likely to use the drug as compared with those parents who aren’t in support of marijuana. In addition, parents should start an ongoing conversation about drugs with their kids teaching the teens on the harmful effects and consequences of being involved in marijuana smoking. Parents should also teach their teens on ways to avoid negative peer influence and pressure and by so doing they will prevent their teens from smoking this illegal and harmful drug. Parents should be very strict on their stand against the smoking of marijuana and serious consequences and punishment should follow the disobeying teens.

Teaching and practicing skills to refuse drug offers

Parents and teachers at various schools should teach the teens on methods of saying no to marijuana smoking and abuse. Teens should be taught on how to deal with peers and friends who are involved in marijuana smoking. Teens should be enrolled in different social institution where guidance and counseling is offered on preventive measures on avoiding the drug. Teens should be taught on the rightful words to refuse drug offers and also taught alternatives to using drugs, for example engaging in games and other useful activities.

Setting clear guidelines

Parents and teachers should communicate the importance of living healthy and also establish clear and specific rules to stop marijuana smoking and other drugs. Teens should instead in activities like doing household chores and also attending classes. Parents should make sure that teens follow their rules, show respect and also follow laws and regulations of the country or state. Parents should punish those disobedient teens to act as examples for the rest to obey.

Keeping lines of communication and tract of the child

Parents should eat dinner together with the teens and also do fun family activities with the children. This will enable a parent realize whether the children are doing fine and whether they are involved in any illegal activity. The parent will also identify various problems and challenges the child might be facing. Parents should also involve themselves in the lives of the children and they should identify and get to know their friends. Parents should network with one another so as to come up with ways on how to keep children away from abusing marijuana and other harmful drugs.

Monitoring parents and adults behavior

Parents act as role models for the teens to emulate. Parents should teach their teens what they are putting in to practice. Parents should avoid marijuana smoking so as to act as good and responsible role models to their teens and by so doing the teens should follow the example of parents and live a life free of smoking marijuana and other harmful drugs.


From the above point of view, it is clearly observed that marijuana has got both long term and short term consequences. The consequences are suffered more by the young people as compared to the old people. Marijuana smoking is harmful to the healthy of the people and the smokers are at a great risk of suffering from various fatal diseases and infections especially in the lungs and neck. Young people should avoid negative peer influence and by so doing their lives wont be at any risk. In addition marijuana smoking should be avoided especially in those places its considered illegal so as to avoid law breaking. Marijuana smoking is harmful and thus everybody should avoid smoking it not only teens.




Ali, M. M., Amialchuk, A., & Dwyer, D. S. (2011). The Social Contagion Effect of Marijuana Use among Adolescents. Plos ONE, 6(1), 1-6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016183

Hesse, M., & Thylstrup, B. (2013). Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 200-221. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-   258

Riggs, N. R., & Pentz, M. (2009). Long-Term Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use Prevention on Adult Mental Health Services Utilization: The Midwestern Prevention Project. Substance Use & Misuse, 44(5), 616-631.

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