Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

Write a memo that provide you an opportunity to do any of the following: pose questions about the material; critique the authors’ arguments; weigh the evidence presented; take a stand on one side of the debate or the other; note ideas, concepts or arguments you found convincing/interesting/worth building upon; acknowledge or point out connections and linkages with/between ideas and concepts from different readings. Although the memos can and should refer back to the readings, they should not be a summary of the readings.

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

You are representing the United States as part of a working Committee convened to examine the issue of Globalization. Your first order of business is to propose the top three areas for consideration by the committee. Because not all countries share the same priorities, you must defend your proposals and persuade the Committee of the importance of addressing your issues above others. In doing so, you are particularly aware that you are representing the Global North and representatives from the Global South are also on the Committee. Once the Committee agrees to examine your issues, you should propose solutions to the problems you have identified. You must back-up your solutions using theories of globalization by the respected authors you have read on the subject. After your solutions are developed, you meet with members of civil society to present your solutions. Academic leaders, representatives from non-governmental organizations, international representatives, and business leaders will provide you with feedback. 

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Questions We Can Answer For you

Develop a 2-slide Microsoft® Word PowerPoint® presentation in which you address the following concept: •Identify the socialization process--stages and models of influence. Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines.

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 Black Unemployment

Summary of Black Unemployment Driven by White America's Favors for Friends

It is commonly noted and realized that racism and inequalities are still practiced in America. It is seen that 6.8% of whites lacked job opportunities in February while at least 13.8% of blacks and 9.6%of Hispanic people lacked jobs. This shows that racial discrimination and inequalities are still rampant in the employment industry in America. DiTomaso, a white writer from the research says that racial inequality and discrimination has contributed to lack of jobs among many blacks in America regardless of their academic qualifications (Ross, 2014). The labor industry in America is full of racism thus contributing to increased joblessness among blacks and Hispanic people compared to whites. Most employers who are whites engage in activates that promotes discrimination and inequalities that at long last results to joblessness among non whites according to research carried out by DiTomaso. Algernon Austin is in agreement with DiTomaso that racism and racial discrimination is the key factor making blacks lack jobs in America regardless of their professional qualifications (Ross, 2014). Color determines the type of job one gets according to research carried out by Austin. Unemployment starts right from educational institutions where blacks are denied access to good and standard education. Racism is carried out in schools and continues even to the labor industry resulting to less standard lives among blacks as compared to whites. Increased public education and major campaigns done against racism will decrease this trend of joblessness among blacks. Blacks are denied access to blue collar jobs which are left in hands of whites who regard themselves as more superior (Ross, 2014). Devah pager from the research says that whites with criminal records are likely to get jobs than blacks without criminal records and highly qualified. This is a discouraging trend and can be reduced through increased public education among people.

References

Ross. J (2014) Black Unemployment Driven by White America's Favors for Friends retrieved                 from;http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/29/black-unemployment-nancy-                ditomaso_n_2974805.html

 

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 International terror policies

Introduction

A good example of terror attack where intelligence failure occurred is the September 11th attacks in the US. This involved four well coordinated terror attacks by the Islamic al-Qaeda group against the Americans in September 11 2001. The al-Qaeda group hijacked four passenger planes in order to make them commit suicide terror attacks. Two of the American planes were crashed in the north and south American towers based in the world trade center located in the New York City. In a period of two hours the two towers were brought down and a huge fire emerged causing harm to the building in the WCT. The third plane was crashed at the defense headquarters based in the pentagon building thereby causing massive destruction on the western side. The fourth plane which was targeted to cause destruction to Washington DC crashed close to Shanksville after a struggle between passengers and the Islamic terrorists. More than three thousand people lost their lives in the well organized terror attacks inclusive of most passengers and the 19 suicide attackers. The leader of al-Qaida finalized that the attacks were carried out by his team suggesting that US support by Israel was the key reason for the attacks. The essay will describe various actions taken by the government and security agencies in combating terror activities.

The September attacks made it a concern for improvement in the global intelligence community. The government terror policies should ensure that valid commissions as well as improvements in the intelligence unit in America have taken place in an organized manner where data and necessary information is well maintained and managed (D'Anieri, 2011). The US intelligence agency was involved in political scandals especially involving presidency which made it possible for the agency to fail in prevention of the September attacks. The current government is aimed at combating terror since it is not involved in politicizing security agencies. The rivalry between agencies was also a contributing factor to failure of the prevention of the deadly attacks. Intelligence agencies are politicized which contributes to their failures as seen from the September attacks (The 9/11 Commission Report, 2004). Intelligence agencies should respect ethic standards and avoid political influence if success in prevention of attacks is to be achieved. The Federal Bureau of Investigations is entitled to deal with law enforcement matters where it should investigate crimes and solve them which is supported by the government. This did not happen in the September attacks which American intelligence agencies should learn from and avoid political influence. Cooperation and team work should be the key factor to success in combating attacks where secret data should be shared even to the public. The intelligent agencies as well as special government forces should cooperate as one way of hunting down terror attackers globally as one way of ending further attacks (The 9/11 Commission Report, 2004). The director of central intelligence community was the advisor to the president and overall head of US intelligence community but did not manage the intelligence community as expected. This impacted a failure of the intelligence community which symbolized that the overall head should not be politically influenced if success in crime prevention is to be achieved.

Government use of Intelligence analysis process and training offered

In defining the intelligence analysis process one should first collect the problem experienced by intelligence community. This should be followed by identifying problems the intelligence community is facing for example that of terror attacks. Terror attacks are the most rampant especially in the US between the national army and security agencies and Islamic terror attackers (D'Anieri, 2011). After the problem has been identified a hypothesis should be created in order to come with ways of solving the problem and actually know the people involved in the attacks. The next process is collecting the information. The intelligence community collects information from its various branches and security agents in order to come up with ways of preventing further attacks (D'Anier, 2011). Modern technology should be employed here in order to get information at the right time and in a convenient manner. For example in September attacks the intelligence community was able to collect information on time in order to prevent future occurrence of such deadly attacks. The next process is evaluation of the hypothesis as a way of finding ways in order to prevent attacks. This involved generation of another security intelligence agency which was not politically influenced like the one which was present during the September attacks. Two rivalry agencies were given new responsibilities in order to enhance cooperation and unity in preventing more attacks. The last process is selecting the most influential factors in ending the attacks locally and internationally. The intelligence community should be highly trained in order to maintain peace both locally and in international affairs (Gert, 2002). Proper training using modern technology should be enhanced by the governments. Modern weapons and machinery should be provided in order to put off attacks.

Conclusion

From the above point of view, terror attacks are mainly caused by political influence, lack of resources and poor communication which have been addressed since the terror attack of September 11 2001 where more than 3000 innocent people were killed. The intelligence community should be well trained and provided with modern technology in order to put off the attacks. International as well as regional cooperation should be maintained in order to solve the issue of frequent terror attacks.

 

 

References

Gertz, Bill. Breakdown: How America's Intelligence Failures Led to September 11. Washington, D.C: Regnery Pub., Inc, 2002. Internet resource

D'Anieri, Paul J. International Relations: Power and Purpose in Global Affairs. Boston, MA:             Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2011. Print

The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks  Upon the United States. New York: Norton, 2004. Print

 

 

 

 


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Prison Recidivism

Under criminal justice, prisons were created not only to keep the morally corrupt persons away from society but also to rehabilitate these persons. However, in some cases, prison does not serve as rehabilitation for some people. These people once re-introduced back to the society either repeat the same thing that sent them away from society or commit a new crime that sends them back to prison. This is known as prison recidivism. Recidivism is the repeat of a mistake, by a person who has already faced the consequences of committing such an action. In the case of prison recidivism, this is where the convicted persons who had already been sentenced to prison and finished their sentences get to go back to prison for committing similar or different crimes. In the US, the rate of recidivism is measured according to the based on the re-arrest or reconviction of an individual.

The bureau of justice statistics established that in the US, the rate of recidivism is very high. For example, according to a research conducted and released in 2007, a number of facts were established. This included the fact that while at the beginning of the year 1.2 million people on parole were at risk of re-incarceration, at the end of the year, 16% of these number had been returned to incarceration. The department found that out of the 300,000 prisoners that had been released from prison in1994, 67.5% had been rearrested in a span of three years. This number has increased by 5% from 1983. The same report found that almost more than 90% of those who were reconvicted either were charged with a worse felony or were resentenced for a new crime. These statistics have since gone high. Finally, the bureau was able to determine the crimes that had the highest re-arrest rates. On top of this list were motor vehicle thieves with a seventy eight percent rate, other crimes that followed included burglars, larcenists, robbers, those in prison for possessing or selling stolen property and those in prison for possessing, using, or selling illegal weapons. It was also found that in a span of three years, 2.5% of rapists who had been released were rearrested for another rape (Bureau of Justice Statistics report).

Reasons for the high numbers as well as solutions to these problems

Research indicates that there are a number of reasons as to why an individual who had already been convicted will opt to go back to prison.

Once a convict has been released, the states responsibility ends at the prison door. The former convict is left to figure out a way in which they can go back into a society that they left a while back and fit. The criminal justice system is ill equipped to help them properly re-enter society. Most of these people do not have skill that they can fall into which makes even finding a job a difficult task for them. There is also the fact that the people whom they committed crimes against are not always readily willing to forgive. There is also the fact that most of the ex-con are battling stigma borne from the society who always see them as ‘bad people’. This results to lack of jobs because people cannot hire ex-cons as well as less interaction by people who think of them as dangerous (Taxman et.al, p.26).

Most of these people face temptations from bad company that they used to accompany before imprisonment. These bad companies always end up corrupting the rehabilitated morals and before they know it, they are committing crime again. It is important that these people are kept busy so that they cannot seek older corruptive company. It is imperative that measure are put in place that will remove the temptation to return to crime. This includes where necessary, monetary assistance.

In this case, the government should put up a program that will equip these people with skills that they can use once they have re-entered society. They should also establish a fund that will be available for this people to foster the skills they have learnt in prison so that they can make a living for themselves. The public should also be sensitized through campaigns of the role of prisons as a rehabilitation tool and that they should treat the ex-convicts as people who have paid their debt to society and must be forgiven and embraced by society (Latessa et.al, p.72). At a smaller scale, there have been attempts to try and reduce the rate of reconviction by individual organizations as well as states. People and groups have come up with aid centers where these convicts are slowly trained on how they can re-enter the society. In these centers, not only is guidance and training given but the ex-convicts, but they also get to interact with people like themselves who want to change. However, this is always at a smaller scale (Travis, p.11). On the upper side, the state of Michigan has recently been able to introduce such a program where the convicts are entered into a society re-entry program just before their release. Since the introduction of this program, the state has been able to reduce their prison population by 12% (The Pew Charitable Trusts report). This is a trend that should be followed by all the other states the US to be able to reduce the huge prison recidivism numbers in the country.

References

Latessa, Edward J, and Paula Smith. Corrections in the Community. Burlington: Elsevier Science, 2011. Internet resource.

Recidivism. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Accessed at http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=17 on 16 November 2013.

Rehabilitative Effects of Imprisonment. Crime Museum. Accessed at http://www.crimemuseum.org/library/imprisonment/rehabilitativeEffects.html on 16  November 2013.

State of Recidivism: the Revolving Door of America's Prisons. The Pew Charitable Trusts. Accessed at http://www.pewstates.org/research/reports/state-of-recidivism-85899377338?p=2 on 16 November 2013.

Taxman, Faye S, and April Pattavina. Simulation Strategies to Reduce Recidivism: Risk Need Responsivity (rnr) Modeling for the Criminal Justice System. New York, NY: Springer, 2013. Internet resource.

Travis, Jeremy, and Christy A. Visher. Prisoner Reentry and Crime in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

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American Alcohol Prohibition & the Political Science behind it

 

Introduction

            The American experience with alcohol prohibition in the early twentieth century, could be termed as a sought of mystery in American history in policy making. This can be attributed to a number of reasons such as the fact that it represented a series of ‘firsts’ in the American law making process. This was the first time that a law that was termed as anti-progressive was passed since it affected a big chunk of the American economy. This legislation was the first of its kind to go against he American citizens individual liberties which was contrary to the eighteenth amendment of the American constitution. The amendment that came thereafter was the first of its kind to nullify another constitutional amendment.

            There is need to understand whether the then policy makers made the right decision in coming up with alcohol prohibition policies or whether the American government at the time bowed down to pressure from socialist groups, without considering all facts like many of the western countries had done so during that period. Therefore to get a better understanding of prohibition in American policy making one has to understand why the government opted to enforce prohibition as one of the many policies that were used to curb alcoholism in the United States. Over, the years, different authors have written work that described the great American prohibition, however, the author that clearly captured the prohibition period, what led to it and its aftermath is Daniel Okrent in his book Last Call- The Rise And Fall Of Prohibition.

Last Call –The Rise and fall of Prohibition by Daniel Okrent

In his book, The Rise and Fall of Prohibition, author Daniel Okrent, gives a brilliant and fascinating history of the most puzzling era in America. In his book, the years between 1920 and 1933, the U.S constitution was amended to limit one of the American’s darling pastimes that entail drinking of alcoholic beverages. At the books beginning, one encounters an American that has been saturated in drink. It was considered by a number of nations as a failed social and political experimental. The amount of alcohol in America was so high that the author reveals that in 1630, John Winthrop was brought by a sailing vessel that had carried more beer than water. In addition, during 1820, the author states that there was flow of liquor that was cheaper than tea. The author believes that at that time the Americans would never relinquish their booze because it was as incredible as it was astounding (Okrent 2010).

            The authors’ book is a dazzling explanation of why the Americans relinquished alcohol and the kind of life under prohibition. In addition, how such extraordinary degree of government intrusion in the privates lives of the Americans changed the country forever. He reveals how prohibition can mark a confluence of diversity. These may include the growing political authority of women’s suffrage movement. The author outlines that the era had allied itself with the antiliquor campaign due to fear of the small town and native stock protestants that they were loosing control of their country due to the large number of the immigrants of large cities. They also included the anti German sentiments that were stocked by the First World War. The author also highlights other variety of factors ranging from the invention of automobile to the advent of the income tax that contributed to the great prohibition era.

Why alcohol prohibition

            A lot of studies on alcohol prohibition by scholars reveal the specific factors that led to the prohibition incorporated in the Eighteenth Amendment and the Volstead Act. However, there have been scant explanations as to what led to the nationwide prohibition in the first place. Over the years, different studies have tried to explain what let up to the alcohol prohibition. Some of the studies concluded that the fact that there were strong leaders in the temperament movements who offered strong activism against alcohol thus leaving the America government with no other reason but to prohibit it. The temperament movements were a force to recon with on their own.

            Others have view that prohibition as a result of the reaction of rural native born Protestants to urbanization and immigration which had been on a steady rise during the early twentieth century. What is common is the fact that all these studies depict the fact that the prohibition happened as a result of increased immigration and the rise of urban morality, right to vote, and he increased voices in the country (Asbury 1950 p. 12). However, all this accounts do not show the real reason why there was wide spread political support for a prohibition amendment to the American constitution and why it was speedily ratified.

Prior to the prohibition

            Prior to the great American alcohol prohibition, American was a drinking nation. Okrent in his book wrote that “Americans drank 36 million gallons of the stuff; by 1890 annual consumption had exploded to 855 million gallons.” It is estimated that during that period, the vast majority of the nations slightly more than three hundred thousand saloons that were owned by first generation Americans who had settled in the colony. The impact of alcohol and its results was so high that it drifted of into politics with many prominent politicians involved in one way or the other. "When twenty-four year old George Washington first ran for a seat in the Virginia House of Burgesses, he attributed his defeat to his failure to provide enough alcohol for the voters. When he tried again two years later, Washington floated into office partly on the 144 gallons of rum, punch, hard cider, and beer his election agent handed out -- roughly half a gallon for every vote he received." (p. 47). However this period was slowly associated with a dark period that had pulled the American people and the economy through a rough patch. By the early twentieth century alcohol consumption in America was referred to as the ‘liquor problem’. This prompted different groups and associations that stated campaigning against ‘the problem’. In the end, efforts to stop the problem did bear fruit (Billings et.al 1905 p. 3). How did this happen? Or as Okrent wondered, “How did a freedom-loving people decide to give up a private right that had been freely exercised by millions upon millions since the first European colonists arrived in the New World? How did they condemn to what was, at the very moment of its death, the fifth-largest industry in the nation? How did they append to their most sacred document 112 words that knew only one precedent in American history?”

Factors that contributed to the prohibition

Upper class sponsored policy

            During the early twentieth century, a policy organization called the ‘Committee of Fifty to Investigate the Liquor Problem’ sponsored by a group of upper class individuals published books looking at the alcohol problem and recommending that the it was impossible to prohibit alcohol consumption in America. The committee instead recommended flexibly designed and administered governmental programs to reshape and reorganize public drinking and to eliminate the saloon from working-class life. There ideas were totally ignored during that period.

 

Temperance movements

    

            Temperance movements played a major role in the development of alcohol prohibition in America. This is due to the fact that many middle class Americans had been persuaded that alcohol would eliminate or if not, considerably reduce major social problems in the country. These problems were to be addressed with the solution of eliminating alcohol which would result in protecting the families, increasing personal success and elimination of poverty and crime. The temperance movements also sought to justify prohibition by implying the need for a new, complex, heterogeneous, class-stratified, industrial, efficiency-oriented society. There was also the fact that these movements were diverse but had one common goal, to get rid of the alcohol problem. The most vocal however of these temperament groups was the one led by the protestant Christians who were quite vocal on the problem. With time the reasons given by temperament groups become less religious and more scientific with groups such as women’s Christian temperament union, under the leadership of Frances Willard, advancing the fact that alcohol was a major reason for major disease issues caused in the alcohol takers body (Levine 1984 p. 113).

Organizational and political reasons

            It is believed that the twentieth century prohibition was mainly led by an organization that went by the name the Anti-saloon league of America. This organization was a kind of modern day political pressure group. The group is said to have been strong enough to have paid event organizers, back political candidates from any party who voted as the organization wished, and even drafted laws that allowed for legislators sponsored by their organization to pass. The group was also in charge of the mobilization of protestant churches. Most importantly, was the fact that the organization received backing from the business elite, especially those in corporate. It is believed that without the support from the business sector, prohibition would not have amounted to much (Asbury 1950 p.78). This was due to the fact that the business world found it impossible to run business worlds with what they termed as ‘drink-deffudled brains’.

 

The American Alcohol Prohibition

            Due to a lot of pressure mounted on congress by all these groups and many other factors, congress passed the eighteenth amendment to the American constitution and its enabling legislation, the Volstead act which went into effect in 1920. The amendment did not prohibit individual consumption of alcohol; however, it prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating beverages (Catlin 1931 p.143). This was the first law of its kind that limited the American citizens’ personal liberty. However even after its passing, there was a lot of skepticism on whether or not the prohibition would last due to the fact that the law was unenforceable. Many people did not respect the new alcohol prohibition law and most just plainly refused to obey it. Historians record that there was nothing effective that the federal or state governments could do that could force this obedience. It is believed that juries could not convict the so called ‘bootleggers’ and despite the effort made by the federal government to hire federal agents, there were never enough. The few federal agents available would often overlook those who flaunted the prohibition if they parted with a small amount of fee. It is reported that all major cities and some smaller ones blatantly violated violation with many establishments in those places that sold alcohol being accessible all day and night. Regardless of the prohibition, drinking was plentiful during that period.

 

The period after the prohibition

The economy

 

The prohibition caused a major drain on the economy of the country due to the loss of tax revenue. There were no more trades in alcohol which was the forth most productive income tax producer in America. This meant that the whole trade had to be shut down economically.

Lawlessness

Historians state that during the twentieth century and more so after the prohibition law obedience, law enforcement and lawlessness were the major pre-occupation of prohibitionists. Major conferences were held to enlist the help of politicians including presidents. There was an argument by the pro-prohibition supporters that because the prohibition was a part of the constitution which was the supreme and sacred law of the land, the country’s survival required that it be obeyed. This period was characterized by a great depression by the whole country. Okrent says “two elements are missing from [the] picture: pain and desperation” (page 221). The disrespect of the alcohol prohibition laws led to the disrespect of all other laws in general by the citizens this would ultimately have led to total anarchy. In fact the state of lawlessness had hit an all-time high that crime was a normal occurrence. In his book, Okrent describes an example of this state of anarchy by saying “the bloated bodies of the hijacked rumrunners washing up on the beach at Martha’s Vineyard, their eyes gouged out and their hands and faces scoured by acid” (page 373) (Okrent 2010) . Therefore while prohibition has been enforced for all the right reasons, Okrent argues that it instead “encouraged criminality and institutionalized hypocrisy . . . deprived the government of revenue, stripped the gears of the political system, and imposed profound limitations on individual rights” (page 373) (Okrent 2010). In 1928, Herbert Hoover made the state of lawlessness his primary campaign object with a promise of composing a commission that would investigate the prohibition. He was subsequently elected president by the American citizens

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The fall of prohibition

Alcohol prohibition did not take a long period in the United States. Just like the rise of its supports, the rise against its support was a very fast one. Like, the saloon league had dominated alcohol prohibition, an organization known as the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment (the AAPA), dominated the amendment against prohibition. It is believed that this organization was led, organized and financed by some of the wealthiest and conservative men in America. The organization which was headed by Pierre du Pont of du Pont Chemicals, and John J. Raskob of General Motors, the board of directors of the AAPA included the presidents and chairmen of the boards of many major corporations. The organization was nicknamed the committees of ‘millionaires’. This organization had two main reasons for pushing for the repeal of the prohibition laws (Cherrington 1920 p. 219). The first was for economical reasons. The organization believed that if liquor taxes were to be restored, there would be a significant decrease on the taxes levied on their businesses and personal income taxes. There was a great fear that the disrespect of the prohibition law was leading to widespread disrespect of other laws.

 

Rockefeller’s announcement

 

In 1932, John D. Rockefeller Jr. made national headlines by openly supporting the repeal for the eighth amendment. He along with his father had previously supported the anti-saloon league. He believed however that in the years that followed the prohibition, the benefits brought about by the prohibition had been outweighed by the evils that had been brought about and had flourished since the adaptation of the prohibition (The New York Times 1932, pp. 1). In his letter, he concluded that repealing the eighth amendment would not end the state of unlawlessness in the country but it would the first step in the right direction. After this announcement, a new organization dubbed The United Repeal Council, chaired by Pierre du Pont, was formed to lead the fight for repeal.  

The repeal

Two weeks after the Rockefellers’ announcement, both congress parties become more lenient towards the idea for reforming the prohibition rules. There was a general agreement that if repealed the retention of liquor control would shift to the states. In December 1932 Congress reconvened and Representatives of the AAPA and its women’s affiliate, the Women’s Organization for National Prohibition Reform (WONPR), visited almost every senator, urging adoption of a repeal resolution. They argued that if congress did not act then, it would take another year before congress would convene again. They argued that if a repeal resolution was to be submitted by the states by February however, there would be time for the legislature to save. In November 1933, the senate voted to submit the twenty-first amendment to the various state amendments for ratification. This was approved much to the relief of many. In March 13th, 1933, nine days after president Roosevelt was sworn in, he asked congress to modify the Volstead Act and legalize 3.2 percent alcohol beer but stressing the need for additional tax revenue on the beverage. The response of congress was quick and on the 7th of April 1933, alcohol was free in most parts of the country. The reaction of the country that had started slowly recovering with the hope that the prohibition would be lifted was a joyful one (Kyvig 1979 p. 210)

Conclusion

Through the work of authors such as Okrent, one is able to see the extent at which a powerful nation such as America could go to benefit its citizen. One is also able to get a glimpse at prohibition and the effects it has in a society if enforced. At the end of the day it can comfortably be said that prohibition has the potential of doing more harm than good. Finally, any prohibition that goes contrary to individual rights of the citizens of a nation, may lead to straight out lawlessness in the country. Finally, as much as prohibition may seem as the only solution to curbing certain social problems, it is wiser for governments to weight all the pros and cons that may emerge from the implementation of the prohibition before acting.

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Work cited

Asbury Herbert. The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1950.

Billings, John S.; Eliot, Charles W.; Farnam, Henry W.; Greene, Jacob L.; and Peabody, Francis G. The Liquor Problem: A Summary of Investigations Conducted by the Committee of Fifty, 1893-1903. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1905.

Catlin. George E. G. Liquor Control. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1931.

Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition in the United States of America. Westerville, Ohio: The American Issue Press, 1920

Kyvig, David E. Repealing National Prohibition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1979a.

Levine, Harry G. “The Alcohol Problem in America: From Temperance to Alcoholism.” British Journal of Addiction 79 (1984):109-19.

Okrent, Daniel. Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: Scribner, 2010. Print.

The New York Times. “John D. Rockefeller Jr. out for Repeal; Says Dry Law Evils Outweigh Benefits” (and other articles). June 7, 1932, pp. 1 ff.

 

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Political Group and Identities

            The central point of the reading features politics of the race. Many countries have always run their politics in terms of race. This normally causes division, as a party will always constitute of a particular racial representation (Cabrera & Holliday, 2017). In American politics, racial politics emerged frontline during the 2016 elections. In these elections, Donald Trump won the election based on racial prejudice than ideology basis. Racial politics also played a big role during the election of the first African American president. Even after a decline in Obama’s ratings, you find that the majority of African Americans approved his performance. When it comes to Obama’s approval, race played a bigger role compared to his political ideology. During the 2008 election, Obama won with the highest points of black Americans.

            The other central point that jumped and is also relevant is politics of gender. Politics is also shaped by social norms of gender. In the past, up to around 19th century, political affairs were left for men and family laws in many places had always favored men. Men dominated all affairs of life, for example, decision making, right to property, and he had maximum authority in the family (Karen et al, 2013). While men had all the power in any form of life, women were abused since they had no place of defense. This led to the emergence of feminine activists who agitated for women rights as well. As a result of this activism, in many parts of the world, there are dramatic changes in attitudes of gender. This has changed policies on many issues pertaining women for instance, family law violence against women, denial of political rights, and issues of maternity leaves for women. Women in every part of the world have virtually come out to demand for their rights. This has eventually increased the number of women who are famous politicians in Africa, Europe, Latin America and many other parts of the world (Karen et al, 2013). There are also many women involved in the study of politics. However, despite all the efforts put to increase women representation in politics, men are still dominating the legislature with the highest percentage compared to women.

            Politics is identified based on various social groups. People are shaped by their own identities hence forming political identities. For instance, these identities may include religion, race, gender, political party, social class, occupation, and many others. Each of these identities has its own aspects that describe it; hence every group, belonging to any of these political identities will always support a politician who favors their aspects of life. However, these political identities are not healthy in a nation because they form divisions (Terry, 2016). Therefore, politics should not be based on political identities, but it should be based on who shall help in the wellbeing of people in a nation.

            We can conclude that Obama’s presidency brought a transformation in American politics. It showed that the white house is not meant for white men but instead, it opened the door for a wider array of people. It also portrayed a changing demography in American politics (Terry, 2016). It is now believable that non-white Americans are capable of winning American presidency as Obama did. However, the issue of identity emerged again in 2016 campaign. Therefore, the only way to have healthy politics is eradicating political identities and running politics basing on ideologies.

References

Cabrera, N. L., & Holliday, M. R. (2017). Racial Politics and Racial Self-Identification: A Case Study of Arizona, 2010-2011. Hispanic Journal Of Behavioral Sciences, 39(2), 131-149.

Karen Celis, Johanna Kantola, Georgina Waylen, and S. Laurel Weldon. 2013. Introduction: Gender and Politics: A Gendered World, a Gendered Discipline. Edited by Georgina Waylen, Karen Celis, Johanna Kantola, and S. Laurel Weldon.

Terry, B. (2016). Racial Politics After Obama. Dissent (00123846), 63(3), 47-54.

 

 

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Political Participation

Introduction

            The political participation in many countries is a voluntary activity where citizens have the right to choose whether to participate or not. The political equality and the political participation are both the basic ideals that characterize democracy. However, it is important various studies have shown that there occurs class bias in the political participation. This bias in the political participation has been associated with factors such as socioeconomic difference among the members of the community. This essay therefore presents some of the evidence to support the idea that there is a class bias in the political participation and voting.

            Socioeconomic difference in the society is one of the leading causes of class bias in political participation. In relation to this it has been established that most of the people with a higher socioeconomic are more likely to participate in politics. This class bias on the basis of the socioeconomic is also evident in the voter turnout. According to Riker and Ordeshook political participation can be termed as calculus voting (Leighley, 118). In this case the citizen usually decides to vote based on the individual cost- benefit analysis where one first weighs the cost of participating against the expected benefit. This therefore implies that most of the rich people will tend to participate in the electro process as compared to the middle-income earners since they stand to benefit. This type of bias has been evident in most of the election in United States where the rich people participate more compared to the middle-income people (Neckerman, 724). However, this bias has led to certain segments in the society possessing greater political voice.  In addition this type of bias also leads to unequal democratic participation.

            Moreover, level of education is also another aspect that can lead to class bias with regard to political participation. In this case, the higher the rate of schooling the individual has the more likely that one can register as a voter and vote for presidential elections. This is because many people who are educated usually understand the importance of voting or taking part in the politics. On the other hand the uneducated people are less likely to take part in the voting process since they do not understand the importance of taking part in a politics. In addition, most of the people with low education standard also do not understand the various policies as presented by candidates in general election. This in turn makes such people to be less interested in the voting process.

            According to Steven and Hasten the bias in the political participation is also associated with the type of decision made by the political parties during campaigns (Levi, 20). This is because most of the political parties usually use the strategy where the first they target to convince the elite population on the various issues that they wish to implement once they are elected. This failure in the political parties to involve all the people in their campaign strategies therefore leads to difference in the participation in the electro process.

            From the above it is evident that the social economic difference in the society remains as the most the profound cause of bias with regard to political participation. This therefore implies that an increase in the economic inequality in a country may lead to increase in an increase in the class bias towards the political participation. Various countries should therefore ensure that they are eradicate socioeconomic inequality to ensure that there is equal participation of the in politics and voting.

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

Works cited

Leighley, J. E. (2010). The Oxford handbook of American elections and political behavior. New York, NY, Oxford University Press.

Levi, M. (2008). Designing democratic government: making institutions work. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

Neckerman, K. M. (2004). Social inequality. New York, NY, Russell Sage.

Welch, S. (2012). Understanding American government. Boston, MA, Wadsworth/Cengage  Learning.

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September 11 attack

            Studies indicate that approximately 2,978 innocent people died from the terrorist attack on September 11 in 2001(Burnett, 2006). The terrorist hijacked four commercial airplanes where two of the airplanes were slammed into the World Trade Center twin towers. Another plane was slammed into the pentagon outside the Washington D.C. However, the third airplane failed to hit the target and landed in the Pennsylvania field and did not hit any target. After the attack of the twin building both towers collapsed within a span of two hours killing and injuring many people. Immediately after the attack most people argued that Osama bin Landen was the man behind the attack since he was known to be an enemy of the United States.

            However, it is important to note that there have been various conspiracy theories to explain the event and the cause of the September 11 attack. One of the conspiracy theory indicates that the traders inside the twin towers new about the attack even before it happened.  This is because before the attack happened some people argues that the traders had put an extra ordinary amount on the United Airlines and the American airlines stocks on the same airlines that were later hijacked.  Another conspiracy indicates that air defense was told to stand down. This is because on normal cases the airline defense have a fighter jet that can be used to stop such attacks, however  in this case they allowed the airplanes to attack the twin towers. Moreover, another conspiracy theory indicates that the world trade center did not collapse on its own. People therefore speculate that there was bomb that was responsible in bringing the building down. In relation to this many of the architect and scientist maintain that it was not possible for the plane fuel to produce enough heat that can melt steel frame.

            Some of the scientist also indicates that the September 11 attack does not hold up scientifically. This is because some scientist believes that the impact holes were much smaller than a commercial American airplane (Burnett, 2006). The scientists also indicate that the plane was not shot down before the impact. In addition the scientist also question why the planes only impacted on a vacuum place that was due to construction. They therefore conclude that the attacks were clearly planned.  Another conspiracy theory also indicates that the hijackers of the plane survived the explosion. This is due to the fact that their passports were found after the explosion.  It is also important to note that another conspiracy theory also indicate that the Jewish people knew about the about the attack. This is because according to the theorist approximately 4000 Jews did not report to work on that day of attack. This according to this conspiracy theory was proof that the attack were organized from inside the building.

            Despite the various conspiracy theory explaining the cause and the events surrounding the September 11 attack these attacks had various impacts. First, the attacks led to loss to the life of many Americans who worked in the World Trade Center Towers, the fire fighters and the police personnel who responded to the attacks.  In relation to this the attack led to employment disruption. This is because after the attack most of the people feared working near the building. This led to the decline in the number of people working in New York City. This attack also led to loss of unity in several state organs. This was evident in the senate where the division was witnessed. This is because prior the attack bill such as the original patriotic act was passed with 98 senators approving it. However, after the attack it was reported that an act such as the associated report came into place only 72 senators approved it.

Another major impact of the attack was on the American economy. In relation to this there was direct economic impact of the attack on the financial markets. This is because after the attack the financial market was closed for a week from September 11 to 17th. This closure was due to the breakdown of the communication and transaction processing systems. This closure had a negative impact on the economy of the country. In addition, the attack also had an effect on the defense homeland security. This is because the spending of the department was to be increased, to help ensure that they become more prepared in future to such an attack. In relation to this it is evident that US department of security and defense currently spends about $500 billion annually compared to the spending in 2001 which was about $100 billion. This clearly indicates an increase in the spending on the department. Moreover, the attack also had an economic impact on the supply chains (Baravalle,2003). This is because there it causes an increase in the cost of the transport cost of various goods and services. Another area of economy that was affected was the tourism sector where there was a massive reduction in the number of tourist who visited the New York City.

            Moreover the attack also had some adverse heath effect arising from the September 11. First, the attack led to an increased exposure and excess cancer risk in united state.  Studies have shown that over 55,000 people who were enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry have a high incidence of cancer. In addition, most of the people who were saved from the accident also have a high incidence of prostate cancer, thyroid cancer among others.  It has also been established that the some of the people who were near that area have also experienced severe health problems. Another area that the attack affected is in regard to the air travelling security procedure (http://traveltips.usatoday.com/effects-911-airline-industry-63890.html)

. This is because after the attack the new air security procedure were developed by the Transportation Security Administration. However it is important to note that the new security measures were also found to reduce the number of the passengers travelling in or out of USA.

            From the above it is evident that September 11 attack will forever remain to be historical event in the United States calendar. This is due to the fact that many innocent lives were lost. In addition the attack also had a negative effect on the economy of United State. The attacks also increased the cancer risk cases in the United States. It is also evident that September 11 attack by the terrorist also changed the entire world policies on terrorism. This is because even though the attack happened in U.S, the various foreign and domestic policies of United States changed in different countries.

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

References

Baravalle, G. (2003). Rethink: Cause and consequences of September 11. New York: de. MO.

Burnett, T. (2006). Conspiracy encyclopedia: The encyclopedia of conspiracy theories. London: Collins & Brown.

U.S today   website http://traveltips.usatoday.com/effects-911-airline-industry-63890.html

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  • Different perspective of the same news
  • September 11th 2001 bomb attack in U.S
  •             Following with the September 11th attack on the world trade center, different media houses could have reported the event in different perspective. The main issue analyzed in this paper is how the two media reported and described the bomb attack. The case outlined here is how the MSNBC and Fox news could have used the two different perspectives to report the event.

  • Organizational approach to defining terrorism
  •             The terrorism can be viewed as one of the global happening, which is easily recognized, however to some extent difficult to define. Various communities worldwide describe terrorism as mainly encompassing the socials-economic or the political condition in a country. In the situation where there exist social economic problems terrorism is perceived to be manly between the have and have not. On the other hand, in the situation where there exist political problems the terrorism is normally perceived to be conflict in order to gain political power.

  • September 11 attack
  •             Studies indicate that approximately 2,978 innocent people died from the terrorist attack on September 11 in 2001(Burnett, 2006). The terrorist hijacked four commercial airplanes where two of the airplanes were slammed into the World Trade Center twin towers. Another plane was slammed into the pentagon outside the Washington D.C. However, the third airplane failed to hit the target and landed in the Pennsylvania field and did not hit any target. After the attack of the twin building both towers collapsed within a span of two hours killing and injuring many people. Immediately after the attack most people argued that Osama bin Landen was the man behind the attack since he was known to be an enemy of the United States.

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