Letter of recommendation

Re: recommendation for singer_______

Dear event manager:

I am writing this letter on behalf of singer_____ who is a good singer and holds good communication and interaction skills. I have known this singer for a good while now and many people are impressed by her music, poems and videos. Last year during the Disney awards, the singer was the major performing artist and impressed many people. I saw her perform and I can guarantee you she is a best performer and a good singer. Her songs are well composed and are appealing to most people even those who listen to them for the very first time.

The singer has a positive attitude and is able to interact with people. She is a good plus a humble person who entertains people to the best. Her performance is entertaining and captivating since singing is her major talent. She is a performer at major national and cultural events since her music and performance are exemplary excellent. She ensures that her performance pleases people since she is appealing to the audience. She dresses in an appropriate dressing code depending on the event and performance. She is a graduate with a degree in music production which enables her perform excellently.

The singer performs well at low costs. Unlike other singers, she aims at entertaining people without demanding high payments. She utilizes her talent excellently even without demanding high payments unlike other singers. This has made many people like her and her music. She is invited in many major events which have ensured she is both a local and international icon. She is known globally since her music is entertaining, calm and attractive.

I am humbled to recommend this singer to you and I am sure you will not get disappointed. In case of any question and clarification you may contact me using the address above. Thank you.

Best,

__________

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Effective Communication

 

Part 1

Introduction

Communication is defined as the transformation of information from one person to another. Communication skills can be either written or verbal. They tend to form the basis of business activity. Effective communication is important in an organization as it helps managers and employees to carry out their jobs and tasks. Additionally, it enhances motivation by clarifying and informing employees about important information in an organization. Smooth communication also improves the overall workflow and productivity of organizations.

Business communication refers to a type of communication that promotes an organization. It functions as a certified statement from a company. Information is crucial to a business as it is required when making transactions about assets, cash flow and pay rolls. This essay will clearly address the effectiveness of communication in G4S Security Company. It will discuss the three forms of communication used in G4S Security Company. These include, email, telephone and face-face communication.

Effectiveness of business information and its communication as key contributors to the success of an organization

In this case, I choose to use G4S security Company, as it is the leading security company in Globe. The company is well known as it operates all over the world. Because of effective communication, G4S security Company is ranked as the leading security company in the world (Ellis, 2010, p.292). Therefore, Communication is the key contributor of G4S security Company’s success as it gives useful and reliable information to the public (Saonee, 2011, p.274). It also informs its entire employees of a future meeting and provides public with reliable information regarding security matters. Additionally, communication is important to G4S security Company as it helps it to run its activity smoothly. This means that for G4S security Company to have a good reputation to the public they should have efficient communication. This in advance will enable them to eliminate errors, managerial problems and deal proficiently with public’s complaints and queries in matters regarding to securities. Either communication can take place internally for instance, through bosses and employees, subordinates, colleagues or it can take place externally through Media and Shareholders (Ellis, 2010, P.292). G4S security Company being the leading security company that is most prominent in the world should have effective communication in order to facilitate security to the public. This means that they have to use consistent sources of communication in order to run a proficient business. G4S security Company has established different channels of communication, for instance, email, telephone and face-face or verbal communication systems facilitate the transmission of information throughout the company (Mccallum, 2013, p.194).

Email communication systems

G4S security Company tends to use email to give useful and reliable information to its public and its entire staffs. This is due to the fact that email is good for the company to converse with local and national branches. Through email, they are able to send and receive quick messages from publics regarding security matters in a convenient way. G4S security Company uses emails as the most secure manner and confidential way of pasing information to the public as well as its staff members globally (Ortiz, 2010 p.142). They also write different emails informing the public and staff members about various security matters and changes taking place in the company. G4S security Company being the leading security company in the globe has to use effective information and communication in order to run its entire activities smoothly. Additionally, for G4S security Company to have a good reputation to the public they should have effective communication. G4S security Company maintains strategic and efficient communication using emails which saves time thus, acting as the most reliable means of effective communication throughout the company (Contos, 2007 p. 48). This is because emails eliminate errors, managerial problems and deal well with the public complaints and queries in a convenient and quick manner. It is said that G4S Security Company perceive emails as a key factor to their strategy of online security services. This makes the company reach a wide number of people who access the internet (Saonee, 2011, p.274). This use of modern technology has promoted and led to success of the entire company. The company has an advantage against all its competitors since it has a good image and reputation because of using modern technology in provision of its security services (Murray, 2013 P.90). The statistics have shown that many people post their queries and their security feedback online. This means that through their use of modern technology they will be in a position to solve various security issues.

Telephone communication systems

Telephone systems are the other means of communication used in G4S Security Company. For instance, managers sometimes choose to communicate through phone. The managers call the entire employees to alert them of necessary changes that have taken place. Communicating through telephone is easier since there is no movement from one place to another. Additionally, it helps to save time. Telephone communication can be of a great benefit because it is more personal than sending letters when communicating with clients (Ortiz, 2010 p.142). Beside fact that G4S Security Company communicate through telephone, they are known to have convenient communication (Messersmith, & Guthrie, 2010, p.244). This is because they are able to deliver certain information regarding security matters. Telephone calls also make G4S Security Company to enhance their security and keep secret, as no one will be in a position to access their conversation. From the above discussion, it is easily seen that telephone is an important communication systems in G4S Security Company. This is because it allows them to contact its local branches because it is ideal for brief messages. Through phoning, communication is easier for they will solve all problems that may arise. This is because they will sort it out fast thereby allowing quick problem solving and immediate solutions to the entire problem.

Face-face communication

The most widely used communication channel in is Face-face communication (Abrahamsen, 2010 p.44). This implies that employees must communicate face to face with the public as away of convincing them to use their quality services. This enables a direct feedback from the public in regard to the company. Face to face, communication makes it easier to solve problems as one can use facial expressions and hand gestures in communication of the deserved message. This is the most convenient form of communication (Dempsey, 2008 p.41). Face to face communication is more appealing and reliable compared to television and emails since the sender of the information sees the reaction of the receiver. Face to face, communication is efficiently used in the security company to convince the clients on the effectiveness of the company as a way of increasing its clients (Abrahamsen, 2010 p.44). Communication should be strategically enhanced if a company wants to succeed which makes the G4S security company to use the modern means of communication like teleconferencing which makes it possible for face to face communication possible.

Conclusion

It is seen that effective communication and information is essential in organizations. This is because it acts as a building block of an organization’s success. G4S Security Company is ranked as the leading security company in the world because of their effectiveness in communication. Thus, it is the key contributor of their success as it gives information to its public and employees. Communication enhances motivation in G4S Security Company by clarifying and informing the publics as well as changing an individual’s attitudes. It promotes the development of G4S Security Company as it helps managers and staffs carry out basic functions.

Part 2

Invitation letter

Name------

Date- 02/04/2014

Recipients’ name - Programme Leader

Recipient’s address-------

Invitation to a student event organized by the University Student Union

I am pleased to invite you to attend a student event that was organized by the University Student Union in order to discuss different issues regarding our performance. Through this event, students will be able to remove all financial barriers that might prevent a student’s participation in campus activities. Moreover, the event will allow every student to speak out some of the challenges that he or she encounters in campus life. This in advance will assist to increase and enhance his or her performance. Moreover, challenges concerning the arrangement of course will also be addressed accordingly. It is our pleasure to meet you, as we will be discussing all these issues that prevent a student’s contribution in campus activities which are affecting performance of most students.

The student event will be held on 04/04/2014 on Friday at around 4.00pm. The event will take place in the school chapel. The event will start with a word of prayer that will be conducted by the Chancellor. The meeting will be adjourned at around 5.00pm.

We will be pleased to have you amongst us on this vital day. Please drop a line in reply and I hope it will be positive one, as it will be our pleasure to meet you as our guest. I am passionately looking forward to meeting you on this essential event.

Yours sincerely----

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Abrahamsen, R. 2010. Security beyond the state. Cambridge University Press.

Contos, B. T. 2007. Physical and logical security convergence powered by enterprise security             management. Burlington, MA, Syngress Pub. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10229412. 48

Dempsey, J. S. 2008. Introduction to private security. Belmont, CA, Thomson Wadsworth.

Ellis, N. (2010). Business-to-business marketing: relationships, networks and strategies. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Ellis, N. 2010. Business-to-business marketing: relationships, networks and strategies. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Mccallum, J. K. 2013. Global unions, local power the new spirit of transnational labor organizing.             http://site.ebrary.com/lib/mcgill/docDetail.action?docID=10787125.

Messersmith, J, & Guthrie, J. 2010, 'High performance work systems in emergent organizations:             Implications for firm performance', Human Resource Management, 49, 2, pp. 241-264, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 February 2014.

Murray, K. (2013). The Language of Leaders How Top CEOs Communicate to Inspire, Influence and Achieve Results. London, Kogan Page.        http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=1156985.

Ortiz, C. 2010. Private armed forces and global security: a guide to the issues. Santa Barbara,    Calif,             Praeger.

Saonee, S, Manju, A, Suprateek, S, & Kirkeby, S. 2011, 'The Role of Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams: A Social Network Perspective', Journal Of Management Information Systems, 28, 1, pp. 273-309, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 February 2014.

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 Briefly explain the Shannon’s (1948) model of communication process using an appropriate brand/ product example to illustrate your answer.

This is a modern type of a communicating model which not only shows the success of communication but also how a communication system at times fails. The issue of time affects communication in organizations for example in advertising a cigarette brand. This was clearly shown in the United Kingdom where cigarettes were advertised by cinemas. Shannon model of communication breaks the communication process in to eight different processes. The person initiating the communication must be present. This is the initiator of the message. A transmitter is also a necessity which is the method used to deliver the message (Gallistel, & King, 2009). For example in advertisement of the cigarette brand the cinemas are the transmitters while the manufacturers are the initiators of the message. The transmitter should be effective and maintenance of face to face communication is also important. In case the communication or advertisement is face to face the transmitter must maintain eye contact and gestures. Televisions, cinemas and radio use signals in order to act as good transmitters. Advertising the cigarette brand is effective through use of cinemas as customers are able to see the product being advertised (Anttalainen, 2003).

Signals are important as illustrated by Shannon model. Different signals are produced depending on the mode of transmission used. To enhance communication process a channel must be included mostly in form of electricity. Electricity makes it efficient for transmitters to transmit the information from the sender to the receiver and back to the sender for a feedback. Communication process can be challenged by some barriers including noise. Noise can lead to failure of the communication process and which should be avoided. A receiver must be present to make the communication process effective. The receiver includes antennae in the cinemas which act as transmitters (Anttalainen, 2003). Destination is the final stage in Shannon model. In the example of the cigarette brand the destination is to customers who will give feedback to producers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Anttalainen, T. (2003). Introduction to telecommunications network engineering. Boston: Artech House. Introduction to telecommunications network engineering. Boston: Artech House.

Gallistel, C. R., & King, A. P. (2009). Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science will Transform Neuroscience. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

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The media in United States

Introduction

Media is an important topic in America that’s why it is necessary to be studied as it keeps the public updated on current political news as according to the weekly standard newspaper in America. The information from the media is very useful to the people of America as it help them to learn more about the national politics. American news is taken from three types of media which are print media including newspapers and magazines, broadcast media including radios and televisions and the famous one which is the internet. For example the weekly standard keeps people updated on the current political news and they do it by remaining non partisan as opposed to other non traditional Medias who remain partisan.

The most media used in America is the broadcast media especially the televisions since their news reach many people and covers a lot of topics which are widely viewed and affecting the public politically. Radios are too used to update people on the current political news while newspapers are too sources of information and are preferred since they are well and comprehensively written (Chapter 6). The media is well spread in America and have rights to broadcast political news which are non partisan and cannot contribute to any misunderstandings among the people.

The non traditional media cannot be depended on by the people on the current political news since it is so partisan for example the internet (Chapter 6).The media is not democratic at only and only favors certain politicians of given ideologies. The traditional media learns to the left politics since it is non conservative in nature and cannot be termed as nationalist. This is not fair to the public as it can contribute to misunderstandings.

Conclusion

The media traditional media in America is termed as right politic media while the non traditional is termed as left politic media since it is very partisan. The media should always remain non partisan for the public to get the required right information.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

www.weeklystandard.com

Chapter 6

 

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Is Google alone sufficient for effective information retrieval?

 

Introduction

            Humans have in all years been looking for method that would in essence reduce their work load. This has led to centuries upon centuries of discoveries as well as inventions that in one way or the other make human existence on earth a little less tiresome. The computer and the internet are among the most recent combination of inventions created by man that seek to lessen humanity’s workload. Despite these great strides made by man, until two decades ago, the gathering of information was a cumbersome activity to humans. This was especially in cases where that particular information was not found in one source.

            Enter Google. Google was created in order to create a list of websites relating to a particular topic on one page. This enables users to be able to key in particular words and receive thousands of websites on that particular topic. This has enabled web-users to be able to navigate through thousands of results. For a century or so, Google, that became a technological phenomenon, has been able to successfully dominate the search engine market due to its ability to produce results. In fact Google became so essential that other companies such as Bing came up with similar concepts.

            Despite its success, Google has in recent years come under scrutiny as to its effectiveness as a search engine. In fact, the success rate of Google as far as searches are concerned is reflected in a number of researches conducted in as to the quality of available search engines. These studies are carried out according to, among other categories search quality as well as popularity. In fact, as of June this year, studies indicated that while Google was still the most popular search engine, garnering a whopping 66% of the market, yahoo was found to be the most effective in getting users to click through to another website. In fact, research found that the success rate of searches resulting was highest with yahoo at 81%. Google on the other hand came in third with just a 67% success rate. This has brought on the question of whether an individual can use Google alone and be able to experience effective information retrieval (Goh & Foo, 2008, p.21).

General search engine information retrieval

            The general duty of any search engine company is to produce the best information retrieval system there is. The search engines need to be evaluated during both the development process as well as when the system is running. Such evaluations are important for them ultimately to improve the quality of search results. Search quality has been able to be classified in four major quality factors (Rowlands et.al, 2008, p.299)..

Index quality

            This is the area of quality measurement that focus on the importance that search engine databases play in the retrieval of results that are both relevant and comprehendible. The quality measurements always focus on general web coverage, country bias and the freshness of the information being sought after.

Quality of the results

            Here classic retrieval methods are put to test. In this case, what is usually considered is the measure as far as quality is concerned. The quality should be able to satisfy the needs of then user as well as satisfy the unique character of the search engine.

Quality of search features

An adequate set of search features and a sophisticated inquisitor language should be offered and should function reliably for a search engine to be able to satisfy quality search feature.

Search engine usability

            Here, the main question is whether the user is able to interact with the search engine in a way that is both efficient as well as effective.

A combination of the four sets of features determines the scale of which any search system, Google included, can be measured to be able to determine the results. Most of these features can be examined either individually or as a set to be able to determine quality results. However, as far as effective information retrieval is concerned the most important feature to examine is search engine quality. The rest of the features while important to the determination of quality can ultimately be derived from the results of the search engine quality.

Google as far as search engine quality is concerned

Search engine quality research, as an area of interest, draws its importance not only from a general interest of information science in the performance of search systems, but also from general society’s wider discussion on search engines. Currently, as indicated, Market figures show that there is a dominance of Google in markets all over the world (Hersh, 2003, p. 76). The main question however comes in when one wants to determine whether Google is really providing good search engine quality or if the company’s popularity is due to its brand name only. If the answer to that is the latter, is there a search engine that is better as far as search information quality is concerned. For if Google is the only search engine that provides quality search results, then it would only be right if users were to exclusively use the search engine. On the other hand, if the quality of searches provided by goggle is of lower standards then it is only fair that the users do not use the engine exclusively as far as effective information retrieval is concerned.

One of the firms that recently did a research on the effectiveness of search engines in the market came to a conclusion of the fact there there is still a problem as far as the effective information retrieval was concerned even in Google’s case. The research firm highlighted that "The share of unsuccessful searches highlights the opportunity for both the search engines and marketers to evaluate the search engine result pages to ensure that searchers are finding relevant information". This indicates that indeed there is a problem and that people cannot solely rely on one search engine to efficiently provide the entire information one seeks but rather that it would be wise to use a couple instead maximizing on the strengths of each (Ellis, 1996, p.43).

Reasons why users prefer Google to other search engines

           Apart from the main reasons associated to users’ preference of Google over other search engines other than the brand name, there have been other research reasons that have come to light. Some of these researches touch on the system’s ability to effectively retrieve information. Studies indicate that while other search engines are able to deliver a variety of searches, Google ultimately delivers the largest amount of relevant results. There is nothing more annoying than being presented with a lot of information that is not relevant to one’s subject of inquiry. While Google uses the same search engine as all its competitors, its identification of relevant parts of the document works better than that of its competitors. The down side to this leading advantage is however the fact that most of the many results that the system will presented are more often than not irrelevant results.

            Generally, a user does not systematically evaluate the results presented but rather just clicks on a couple of results. Because of the large number of results found by the search engine it is less likely that the user will miss at least one result that is relevant to their search. Therefore it is important to note that while the user is interested in finding as many results on the topic as possible, relevance plays an important role in the search process. Quality will always trump quantity as far as a good search is concerned.

            The ranking of the results similarly plays a very important role as far as effective search engines are concerned. It would make absolutely no sense for the most relevant search results to be placed in the middle or at the bottom of the ranking more so in cases where thousands or even millions of results were able to be retrieved.

            Result descriptions also play a very important role where search engines are concerned because it is the results description that will influence the users’ judgment. In most cases, relevant descriptions should be able to yield relevant results. Although in some cases, irrelevant descriptions yield relevant results. In such cases, then the search engine has been able to reach very quality levels.

            Finally, it is important that the search engine provides diversity of sources. While diversity within the result set may not be enough, it should always be presented on the first result screen in order to give users an overview of different sources that have information on a particular topic. Providing three of four similar sources more so on the front page may create a sense of monotony as far as result finding is concerned. Diversity of sources is relatively simple to measure, as the higher the number of sources presented on the first result screen, the better.

            However, diversity of sources does not measure whether the question results cover all aspects of the underlying information need. When aspects are collected in the results collection phase, these aspects can be extracted from the documents found and compared to the former. Thereafter, the number of results a user must view in a certain search engine until all aspects of the topic are displayed can be measured. Even if this appears to be too strict of an approach and it can be argued that users rarely require access to information on all different aspects of a topic, measuring aspects can be a good way of identifying search engines that produce relevant results, but where these results are too similar to each other.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ellis, D. (1996). Progress and problems in information retrieval. London, Library Assoc.

Goh, D., & Foo, S. (2008). Social information retrieval systems: emerging technologies and applications for searching the Web effectively. Hershey, Information Science Reference. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=315017.

Hersh, W. R. (2003). Information retrieval: a health and biomedical perspective. New York [u.a.], Springer.

Rowlands, I., Nicholas, D., Williams, P., Huntington, P., Fieldhouse, M., Gunter, B., ... & Tenopir, C. (2008, July). The Google generation: the information behaviour of the researcher of the future. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 290-310). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

 

 

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Portrayal of Women In The Media

Introduction

 The portrayal of women in the media is an issue that has gained a lot of concern. Mass media takes the form of broad cast media, printed media and outdoor media. Media has been seen to have a lot of effect on the lives of individuals which is an increasing factor as the days go by. Media is a powerful tool that provides us with information and entertainment. It is a reflection of the society that we are and it greatly influences the way we think. The portrayal of the different gender varies and this contributes to the behavior of the growing generation that tends to emulate what they are exposed to by the media and it can be both bad and good. The media has however been seen to do more harm to the development of girls due to the poor portrayal of women in the media.

The portrayal of women in the media can be classified in terms of quality and quantity .In terms of quantity the media has not yet reflected the reality in terms of the women who are seen in the media. The media has given minority roles to women while the majority of the population is women. This has caused young girls to lack role models who they can look up to since there are limited numbers of female characters. This has also generated greatly to the popularity of men characters and the girls have opted to idolize them contributing to the mix up of roles that the girls should take up as they grow.

In terms of quality the media has been seen to portray women as the weaker sex whose value is measured in terms of their usefulness to others and their main roles are described to be domestic rather than leadership roles. The media has also portrayed the women as less likely than male characters to achieve their goals. This images are likely to be accepted as normal by the girls and this will consequently affect their ideas in terms of careers choice and the roles they choose to take in the society with a majority shying of from powerful and leadership positions since this reality is rarely visible (Durham, 210).

When a woman is seen in power, such as female boss, the media portray the woman to be cold- hearted, detached career woman with tendencies that are not common with the men who are in power. This shares the ideologies that a powerful woman sacrifices a healthy relationship, family and at times even her own sanity so as to be in a competitive position and become powerful and influential. This discourages the young girls from aspiring to become influential and powerful in the society and those bold enough to dream they lack role models to guide them through their dream.

The media has also been seen to direct women and girls energies into narrow channels to define their concerns preoccupation and aspirations within an imposed feminine frame work. Apart from physical looks and dressing there is stress of development of women’s mental faculties and behavior that allows male domination in the social structure. In most of the stories in the media, women are depicted with the life ambition of getting a right man and keeping him at all cost. They are also seen to engage in activities that are meant to please men at the cost of their happiness. This affects the romantic and love life of girls, since they feel that they should be there to please men and their main function is to please men even by engaging in activities that will injure them psychologically and physically (Judith, 31).

The media has also been seen to define beauty that has been used as a benchmark that the young girls use to compare themselves with. The media has portrayed beauty as perfect. The media mainly portrays beauty as a size 0, perfect skin and curvy girl. This idea is portrayed since the models used are fabricated to accommodate these qualities. The girls exposed to this images lack the discerning eye of the deception in these images and this leads them to the road of destructive self (Kettles et al, 66).

The description of a women’s relevance and importance in terms of her body is known as objectification of the women where they are made to feel that their bodies define them .In regard to this perception girls tend to feel ashamed and anxious if they do not meet beauty standards promoted in the various media channels.( Klenke, 127)

The definition of beauty of the media has been seen to be attainable among many young girls but they have been constantly seen to engage in activities that would help them attain the rating that would make them be described as beautiful. This has led to eating disorder since the girls are reducing the amount of food consumed so as to get the slim curvy bodies. There have also been seen to be an increased number of psychological disorders such as dysmorphic disorder, where girls obsess over perceived flaws in their appearance. This order can lead to depression, disability and even suicide.

In advertising, particularly in print publications, a women’s body is dismembered to sell a product. This means that only one body part is focused mainly a body part that is sexual in nature. The separated part of the body is then related to the product. (Greening, 4). This doesn’t allow women to view their bodies as a whole; they instead view the body as a composition of separate areas and one area of imperfection that makes it impossible for the rest of the body to be classified as beautiful.

When women are able to see each part of their body separately, it makes it easier to compare their parts to the women on display in the media. Such a comparison is unrealistic and doesn’t allow any woman whose look deviates from the popular images to see themselves as attractive. Media images play a bigger role than do the opinions of friends and family when it comes down to heterosexual women’s formation of their body image (Risska, 2).

The media has also portrayed the aging of women as lose of beauty and for any woman to remain beautiful they must remain youthful and young. This is exhibited by the ladies who are made to look younger and yet play the roles of elderly women. This tendency increases the sale of beauty products that are fashioned to keep an individual from showing the symptoms of aging. This has a negative effect on the girls since they leave in a constant fear of aging which consequently leads to the consumption of anti-aging products by this girls and surgeries that would revert any symptom of age (Wells, 553).

The media is also seen to sexualize girls mostly in fashion and advertisments that are displayed to girls to see in the media. The pressure on girls are exacerbated by the media increasing tendency to portray girls in sexual ways and hyper-sexualization of very young girls, most notably in fashion and advertising, is a disturbing trend given that these stereotypes make up most of the representations of themselves which girls and women see in the media.

The pressures on girls are exacerbated by the media's increasing tendency to portray very young girls in sexual ways. The media exposes a lot of sexuality to young girls and images that portray women to be powerless, passive victims. This contributes greatly to the growth of the girls and the decisions made on their clothing and behavior with most of the girls choosing clothing’s that portray them sexually and girls are now engaging in sex at a younger age which has increased teen pregnancies, STDs, and the number of girls reporting abusive partners. These behaviors are contributed greatly to the sexual images exposed to the girls that make them feel that they are sexual beings and there is no harm in engaging in sexual behaviors.

The pornography industry has also been seen to portray women as sexual objects that serve as objects that are meant to be used for the satisfaction of their male counterparts. The pornographic materials are also seen to show various violent acts against women and acts that would hurt women to be part of the normal sexual life that a omen should endure. This creates a negative mentality among the young women that they should be objects of pleasure and that violent acts against women are normal (Baron et al, 297).

The media is also seen to expose the young girls to materials that show violence against the women for instance, violence against women is publicized in form of rape that is reported in the news. The characteristics of the cases portrayed are those that highlight minority men in singular incidents of rape, involve strangers and those that involve gangs in which in reality are rare. Such emphasis on non typical violence towards women has the effect of minimizing the daily domination and violence that women and girls face ((Baron et al, 298).

When the salience of rape is increased in girl’s minds it tends to affect negatively on the girl’s self-esteem, trust and sense of self-control. The exposure to such violence tends to desensitize girls to such violence with girls tending to rate such imagery as less degrading. It also tends to make girls less sympathetic to a victim in a mild sexual graphically violent condition and they perceive it as normal which should not be the case.

 

 

 

 

Works cited

 Baron, Robert A.; Richardson, Deborah R :Human Aggression. Plenum Pub Corp, 2004. Print.

Durham, Meenakshi G. The Lolita Effect: The Media Sexualization of Young Girls and What We Can Do About It. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2008. Internet resource.

Greening, K.(2006). The objectification and dismemberment of women in the media. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences. Vol 5

Judith worell. (2001). Encyclopedia of women and gender. Sex similarities and differences and the impact of the society on gender l-3. Volume two, Elsevier

Kettles, Michele, Colette L. Cole, and Brenda S. Wright. Women's Health and Fitness Guide. Champaign, ll: Human Kinetics, 2006. Print.

Klenke, Karin. Women in Leadership: Contextual Dynamics and Boundaries. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Pub, 2011. Print.

Risska, R.(1998). SF state researchers release study about women, the mass media, and the development of body image.

Wells, Alan. Mass Media & Society. Greenwich, Conn. [u.a.: Ablex Publ, 1997. Print

 

 

 

 

 

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Assignment 1

Discuss the areas in which Walter Lippmann though journalism was flawed.

            Walter Lippmann was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of the cold war. He was also responsible for coining the term stereotype in modern psychology. In his work, he tried to reconcile the tensions between liberty and democracy. Based in his research, he published an article titled ‘A test of the news’ that observed that the press was partial, biased, and inaccurate in its coverage.

            Walter believed that the press was biased in its coverage. He identified the tendency of journalists to generalize about other people based on fixed ideas (Lippmann et. al 1920). He argued that people, including journalists, are quicker to believe "the pictures in their heads" than come to judgment by critical thinking. He wrote that Humans condense ideas into symbols, and journalism, a force quickly becoming the mass media, is an ineffective method of educating that public.

            Even if journalists did better jobs of informing the public about important issues, Lippmann believed that "the mass of the reading public is not interested in learning and assimilating the results of accurate investigation." Citizens, he wrote, were too self-centered to care about public policy except as pertaining to pressing local issues. He therefore believed that given the biased nature of the press the information they fed the citizens would be inaccurate (Lippmann, 1991).

            Walter did not assume that news and truth are the same. For him, the “function of news is to signalize an event, the function of truth is to bring to light the hidden facts, to set them in relation with each other, and make a picture of reality on which men can act.” Therefore, journalist’s version of the truth is prejudiced to how he constructs his reality. The news, therefore, is “imperfectly recorded” and too fragile to bear the charge as “an organ of direct democracy.”(Lippmann, 1989)

Sources

Lippmann, W. (1989). The public philosophy. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Publishers.

Lippmann, W. (1991). Public opinion. New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A: Transaction Publishers.

Lippmann, W., Liffmann, F., & Merz, C. (1920). A test of the news. N.p.

Assignment 2

Describe how journalism does or does not fit in with our concept of the learned professions. (You should discuss what the learned professions are)

            Learned professions are described as vocations that are founded from specialized educational training whose purpose is to supply objective counsel to others, for compensation. In the past only three occupations were referred to as profession, these were divinity, medicine, and law. This concept has however changed over the years with more occupations meeting qualifications of being termed as professions.

            Most of these professions arise from the development of formal qualifications based upon education, apprenticeship, and examinations, the emergence of regulatory bodies with powers to admit and discipline members, and some degree of monopoly rights (Bullock & Trombley, 1999). Therefore, one can classify journalism as a profession because it meats all the standards set to established to classify a vocation as a profession.

            Journalism as a profession has professional bodies that are responsible for regulating it. These bodies are usually in charge of defining, promoting, overseeing, supporting and regulating the affairs of their members.

            Journalism is also autonomous. This means journalists have control over their decisions and can make independent judgments about their work (Bayles, 1981). This usually means the freedom to exercise their professional judgment. These two traits mainly illustrate that journalism indeed can be termed as a profession.

Sources

Bayles, M (1981) Professional Ethics. Belmont, California CA : Wadsworth.

Bullock, A & Trombley, S (1999), The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought. London: Harper-Collins.

Assignment 3

Describe the social responsibility theory of the press as outlined in Four Theories of the press and as amplified by the Hutchins commission

            Social Responsibility provides for private ownership of mass media in exchange for responsible use of that media. This theory is tied to a form of government that is based on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Social responsibility theory allows free press without any censorship but at the same time the content of the press discussed in public and media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional self-regulations or both. The theory lies between both authoritarian theory and libertarian theory because it gives total media freedom in one hand but the external controls in other hand.

            The Hutchins commission on the other hand was formed during a period when the public did not trust the press for they believed that the media was biased at the time. The commission was the first to come up with the social responsibility of the press. This theory proposed that the media take it upon themselves to raise society's standards by providing citizens with the information they needed to govern themselves. The commission warned that it was in the best interest of the media to do this for if they did not, the public would demand that the government regulate the media.

Sources

Blanchard, M. A. (1977). The Hutchins Commission, the press and the responsibility concept.        Lexington, Ky: The Association for Education in Journalism.

Siebert, F. S., Schramm, W., & Peterson, T. (1984). Four theories of the press: The            authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and Soviet communist concepts of what      the press should be and do. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

 

Assignment 4

In class, we discussed how the press may be biased to the east coast. Describe other specific ways in which the press in this country may be biased.

            There are many forms of bias associated with the American media. This bias stems from personal and public opinions of few or many individuals and their thoughts on issues critical to the country.

            A profit motive bias is a result of the U.S. Medias’ pressure to create a stable and profitable business. This means that the news is always geared towards America’s corporate interests. This bias involves reporters and especially editors sharing and acquiring values with corporate elites in order to further their careers. Those that do not comply usually get weeded out or marginalized.

            Liberal bias occurs when liberal ideas have undue influence on the coverage or selection of news stories. On the other hand, Conservative bias in the media occurs when conservative ideas have undue influence on the coverage or selection of news stories. A survey conducted to prove that some media channels were inclined towards liberal ideologies than others. The survey found that most of these journalists were Democratic voters, whose attitudes were well to the left of the public on a variety of topics, including such hot-button social issues as abortion, affirmative action, and gay rights. The other Medias seem to promote the conservative party and their ideologies. These media houses do not air issues that they deem not to be conservative in nature. This type of bias is also observed in the coverage of presidential elections by the different media houses.

Sources

Noam, E. (2009). Media Ownership and Concentration in America. Oxford: Oxford University    Press, USA.

Ruschmann, P. (2006). Media bias. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers.

Sloan, W. D. (2007). Media bias: Finding it, fixing it. Jefferson, NC [u.a.: McFarland.

 

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 Communication in Business Article Review

 

First Article

The name of the article is Powerful Leadership Communication and is authored by John Baldoni. The article talks mainly of communication and its importance in a company. It points out the need for communication among the all stakeholders in a company as well as the processes, which constitutes efficient communication and types of communications that are there. It also explains the benefits a company stands to gain from efficient communication.

The author did in fact prove his point in his article. An article titled Leadership Is a Conversation in the Harvard business review magazine in June 2012, concurred with the author. In this article written by Boris Groysberg and Michael Slind , the importance of communication especially by leaders in a company is clearly outlined. The authors arrived to their conclusion while conducting a recent research project that focused on the state of organizational communication in the 21st century. Over more than two years, they interviewed professional communicators as well as top leaders at a variety of organizations—large and small, blue chip and start-up, for-profit and nonprofit, U.S. and international. At the end of the research, they had spoken with nearly 150 people at more than 100 companies. The participants mentioned their efforts to “have a conversation” with their people or their ambition to “advance the conversation” within their companies.

They concluded in their research that Smart leaders today, engage with employees in a way that resembles an ordinary person-to-person conversation more than it does a series of commands from on high. Furthermore, they initiate practices and foster cultural norms that instill a conversational sensibility throughout their organizations.

This article is beneficial to the knowledge in communication in business because it shifts the approach formally taken by businesses. Communication need not be too formal an affair in running the business. The right approach in communication can yield more success in the running of the business.

Second Article

The name of the second article is ‘When Gossip is good; The Social Value of Tigers Transgressions’. Nicholas Difonzo writes it. The article talks of gossip and the effect it has on people. It also points out the advantages of gossip, which include the fact that it can act as an instrument of moral instruction. According to the author, gossip may hurt people but it ends up teaching them lessons.

Prof. Frank T. McAndrew, a social psychologist, wrote in his book titled ‘Information Coalitions: mastering the hidden dynamics of organizational change’ that “… gossip is a more complicated and socially important phenomenon than we think…” he goes on and explains that much as gossip is viewed as a bad habit, there are some good traits that can be achieved from gossip.

He states that some of the advantages of the gossip include the trust implicit in sharing gossip with another person and the bonding effect of sharing secrets with others. Gossip can also be used as a means of learning the unwritten rules of social groups by helping to resolve ambiguities about cultural norms. He also believes that gossip can be used as an efficient way of reminding group members about the importance of the group’s norms and values and, a way of deterring deviant behavior and of punishing anyone who breaks established norms and values

Though this article mostly focuses on psychologically, a business student can learn a lot from it. Gossip is part of the human nature therefore; it is bound to occur at the business place through employees. There is always the need to communicate at the place of work. For example, gossip at the work place can help a new employee who their leaders and what they like.

 

Sources

(2013, 03) Leadership Is a Conversation. Retrieved 03, 2013, from http://hbr.org/2012/06/leadership-is-a-conversation/

Rodgers, C. (2007). Informal coalitions: Mastering the hidden dynamics of organizational change. Basingstoke [England: Palgrave Macmillan.

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  The Tweeter profile assessment of Miranda Kerr

Overall summary of her Twitter activity

Miranda Kerr is a female Ausii supermodel, Victoria’s Secret Angel, founder of KORA Organics & author of Treasure Yourself. She has 1,688,746 twitter followers and 630 twitters that she follows. So far, she has tweeted 1,658 tweets in her account. Over the past two weeks, from the 11th march to 24th of March 2012, Miranda has tweeted eighteen times with an average of two tweets in some dates such as on the 13th and 11th of March. On some other dates such as the 12th and 16th of March Miranda does not tweet at all.

Analysis of the type of Twitter activity

Professional commentary

Miranda posted a picture of her and promotional product on 14 March as well as mentioned going to work. This particular tweet received 421 re tweets as well as was a favorite of 469 people. She also posted her Vogue and Rebook photo shots. This ensures that all here tweeter followers are able to follow her modeling career. To illustrate this point we look at her tweets on the 15 and 24 respectively where she tweeted “Thank you @vogueoz” for the former date, and “Thanks again @reebok http://instagram.com/p/XQUQp6kMAK/” on the 24th .

Personal updates

Miranda seems to have been sick while in los angels. This is illustrated in her tweets on March 11 where she stated that she was “Loving the sunshine in LA ☀”, and the tweets from some of her followers who wished her to get well soon. She replied on the 13th to her followers and told them she was doing much better and was going back to work. She also seems to love nature and flowers as shown in her “Rose from my garden chriscolls alexandraagoston ❤” tweet.

Criticism of issues and use of language

In the past two weeks, Miranda’s take on most critical issues has been inactive. She has not talked about any critical issue. However, occasionally, like the march 20, she posts an inspiration via a picture link to her followers. Here use of language is impeccable, as noted through out all her tweets and does not shorten her words when tweeting.

How the Twitter activity contributes to the overall public image of Miranda Kerr

Miranda’s twitter activity does in fact contribute to her overall public image. Through tweeter, one establishes that Miranda is not only Australian but also a Supermodel. We are also able to establish that in her modeling career she has been able to land a job as Victoria Secrets angel, has had a photo spread for vogue magazine, and more recently has been involved in the Rebook campaign. She mostly posts here modeling career as well as the different jobs she does on here tweeter page for her fans to follow.

Through her tweeter account, we discover that she was suffering a kind of ailment that her followers kept on sending her get-well massages. The confirmation of the ailment is in the mainstream media such as the Daily Mail, where we learn that Miranda had recently suffered a neck injury.

Based solely on her twitter account we can therefore conclude that Miranda is a humble person who does not like the spotlight. This is based on the number of people she follows on twitter. On the other hand, she has so many twitter followers, which shows that many people admire here. She likes here fans and takes the time to thank them for their support. She also enjoys her modeling career and makes the effort of updating her fans and followers of all the projects she is working on.

Recommendation/s to the employer/management

Based on here tweeter profile only then Miranda is a good model to hire. Her account profile shows that she has worked with several big names in the modeling industries such as Victoria’s secret, vogue and more recently rebook. This is because she utilizes her twitter account in reaching her fans. She seems not to post tweets about her own personal live but rather her modeling career. This is established by the fact that many of her tweets are concentrated on the different products she models for rather than on her personal life. She enjoys flowers and nature as is seen in her many tweets and has her own organic skin and body care products line. These make her a perfect candidate for our product, which is also organic, based.

Here image seems to be impeccable as there is not much controversy mentioned by her twitter follower, on the contrary, her twitter followers seem to praise and complement her. Her followers like here and closely follow her career. If she endorses our product then it is sure that her many twitter followers will be able to see our product through her twitter profile.

She is a reserved person who does not share a lot of her personal life on twitter, in fact, the only thing that one can establish through her twitter profile is that she loves flowers and nature and she has written a book titled ‘Treasure Yourself’. This book which is about how the current generation can achieve better health and happiness has manages to get good reader rating. This also illustrates that she is also a good entrepreneur for publishing and selling a book as well as owning a cosmetics line.

Her twitter profile does not however show us the more of the human side of Miranda. Other than her demonstrated love of nature and flower, we do not see the human side of Miranda. She does not show us what she dislikes and likes or who are the people she treasures a lot. She does not five her opinions on anything nor does she criticize anything on twitter. Other than the thanks, she gave to her twitter followers, she does not say much. In fact, we are only made aware of the fact that she had injured her neck by the fact that her followers wishing her a quick recovery and other media sources.

It would therefore be concluded that based solely on her twitter account then Miranda’s modeling career is doing well. This however, and her entrepreneurial skills are the only sides of Miranda we can see. Based on the twitter account only we cannot glimpse at the human side of Miranda and therefore cannot categorize her personality, however, judging from her followers reactions to her, Miranda, is a warm person who sticks out as a role model to all her fans and twitter followers. Based on all this facts, Miranda is a good model to hire for our specific product.  

 

 

 

 

References

Chambers, D. (2013). Social Media and Personal Relationships: Online Intimacies and Networked Friendship. New York, NY. Palgrave Macmillan

Diaz-Ortiz, Claire. (2011). Twitter for Good: Change the World One Tweet at a Time. Jossey-Bass.

Hutchins , Rowe. (2012). Sport Beyond Television: The Internet, Digital Media and the Rise of Networked Media Sport. New York, NY:CRC Press

Lee, N. (2013). Facebook nation: Total information awareness. New York, NY: Springer.

Passive and active measurement: 12th international conference, PAM 2011, Atlanta, GA, USA, March 20-22, 2011 : proceedings. (2011). Berlin: Springer.

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American television and its effects on culture

            For the longest time, television has been able to influence the American culture; how the people and to a large extend the decisions they make. The American media has the freedom to air anything they feel like; however, in some cases what they air contributes negatively to the society’s culture. An example is violence. In 1975, the medical community was able to establish a link between television violence and child and youth growth development. This link showed that a child brought up watching violence on television ended up showing signs of aggression that a child not exposed to such. The content viewed on television is sufficient not only to instill principals of violence but also to encourage crime in the society.

There is a thin line between the freedom of speech and inciting of violence. Though the American constitution does not expressly state this, the courts in Brandenburg v. Ohio case that

“ . . .we have fashioned the principle that the constitutional guarantees of free speech and free press do not permit a State to forbid or proscribe advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action.”

Over the years, the American television has been found to play a major role when it comes to the election of their president. This is because more Americans prefer watching television to reading a newspaper. Important events such as presidential debates and other key issues on politics usually aired on television closely followed by the society. In this case, the media may either influence the cultural influence of the community in either a good way or a bad way

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Economic issue on Television Industry

            The economic issues are also another area where the legal laws appear not fit or not present in the television industry. In regard to this standardization of the media players has also been a great issue. This is because the reception of the TV via the internet has been controlled over the last years. This has allowed the consumer to get free access to various programs offered by the local TV station. In addition the diffusion of the internet-based TV is limited by the access cost.  This therefore implies that the owners of the television station are unable to realize enough profit. The consumer also able to view any program they wish via the internet. This is because there lacks clear rules in regard to the standardization of the media.

            Moreover, the computers nowadays are also used as device for watching TV. This has in turn limited the companies selling the TV handset since they are unable to realize any sale due to this competition. It is also important to note that the IP transmission of various TV programs is completely unreliable.  In addition the quality of transmission is also not to the standard. This has in turn affected the television industry negatively, since most of the consumers are not willing to watch the programs from the internet, which have poor picture quality. This problem is mainly due to the facts that are no laws that exist to govern the quality of the television picture that are transmitted via the internet. This therefore implies that the government must come up with new laws to govern the industry. However, it is important to note that the quality of the picture transmitted via the internet is currently improving with technology.

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Argument Analysis and Evaluation

 

 

What are assumptions?

            The assumptions refers to the various things that are taken for granted. This may also include various things that one had previously learned and therefore one does not have necessarily has to question. In addition the assumption may also be used to indicate part of the belief system. This is because a person usually develops beliefs that are then used to interpret the happening of the world behind them. One may therefore argue that if the belief system of an individual is sound then such is an individual may make a sound assumption. However if the belief system of an individual is not sound then such persons may end up making the wrong assumptions. Moreover it is also important to note that the assumption can be justified or not depending on the type of assumption made.

Assumption interference in critical thinking

            There are various assumptions that interfere with the critical thinking. First, there is this assumption that other people are familiar with the problem or the issue that one wants to share. In relation to this one may also assume that others are also faced with the same problem that one wants to present and therefore have the same interest in the problem or the issue that one intends to present.  The second assumption that affects the critical thinking is the assumption that small imperfection in the person ideas will not affect the people acceptance to it. This is wrong assumption since the people who disagree with ones ideas use such imperfection to question the idea. The third assumption that interferes with critical thinking is the assumption that if something is not clear to ones thinking it will be clear to the other people. Moreover, the assumptions that the people who stand to benefit from ones idea will automatically benefit without any persuasion also interfere with critical thinking.

What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking

            In order to avoid making assumption one first needs to clarify his or her own thinking. In relation to this one therefore needs to state one point at a time. This can allow the listeners to understand clearly the point that one intend to raise. Elaborating the meaning of each point can also help to ensure that the listener understood the point being raised.  Moreover, one also needs to stick to the point. This can help the listeners to make a logical connection of the various issues being raised. Another important thing that one needs to look out is any question that may arise from the ideas presented. This can help to clarify any detail that may not be clear in the explanation. One also needs to ensure that he or she is reasonable in thinking. This can help to ensure that the one is able to identify the level if willingness among the audience. In addition being reasonable can also help to ensure that one is able to detect any irritation among the listener when delivering the idea.

What are fallacies?

            Fallacies mainly refer to the mistake in the reasoning. This therefore implies that fallacies are arguments that which uses bad reasoning. There are two broad categories of the fallacies, the formal and the informal fallacies. The formal fallacies refer to the defect in the argument that can be indentified through careful looking at the logical structure of the argument. On the other hand the informal argument refers to the defect in the argument that can be indentified only through careful analysis of the fact presented in the arguments. Studying fallacies is important since it helps one to spot poor reasoning and be able to correct such type of reasoning.  In addition studying of the fallacies helps in establishing the rules of correct reasoning. Most importantly the study of fallacies helps in one to avoid them in their reasoning and therefore ensure that they provide only facts when delivering ideas.

How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments?

The fallacies are in written, oral and visual arguments in several ways. In the visual argument, the fallacies refer to the concept that one witnessed the event and therefore uses that as a tool for persuasion. However one needs to evaluate claims and weighing the evidence presented in support of the claim. In oral arguments a person may present a weak analogy of the claim in this case an individual draws conclusion through comparing various events presented (Gambrill, 2012). However, careful analysis of the weak analogy it is evident that such arguments are not correct since the two event presented do not literally connect to each other. In addition in the oral argument an individual may use the slippery slope to present his or her argument. In this case, the arguer usually claims that certain sort of chain reaction usually ends up in a certain dire consequence.  However careful analysis of such arguments it is evident that there is no enough evidence to support such claims.

What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?

            In order to avoid fallacies in the reasoning one first need to keep the cause and effect separate. This can help to distinguish that just because something happens it does not mean that the first thing causes the second thing.  Another important ways of avoid the fallacy in thinking is to avoid jumping into a conclusion which can in turn help to avoid the hasty generalization (Damer, 2009). Moreover, it is also important for one to avoid introducing the red herring. In this case one needs to avoid introducing irrelevant lines in the argument. In addition one also needs to avoid drawing false analogy of two things, which might not even be related. During argument it is also important for one to focus on the opponent position and not the character of the individual. This is because the character of an individual is irrelevant to the argument. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Damer, T. E. (2009). Attacking faulty reasoning: A practical guide to fallacy-free arguments. Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Laerning.

Gambrill, E. (2012). Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice: Improving the Quality of Judgments and Decisions. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

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Question 11.
How do you feel that communications law and policy contribute to safeguarding The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, individual privacy, free speech, and a democratic society? What modifications, if any, would you make to communications law and policy?
100 words

In the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom applies to policies and legislation of federal government and guarantees freedoms and rights similar to the rights found within the charter. In this case, the laws include legal rights, equality rights, freedom of association and freedom of speech. Therefore the communication policy and law protect the freedom of each person regardless of their ethnicity. For example, the intelligence-led policing help improve intelligence and information sharing. For example, LEO (Law Enforcement Online) and CALEA (Communication Assistant for Law Enforcement Act) in the United States help control the communication department thus preventing crimes like eavesdropping (Edwards, 2012).

Question 13.
How much private enterprise and/or free-market economics should be applicable to mass communication? Please locate yourself within one of the viewpoints (i.e. economistic, culturalist etc.) when expressing your opinion.
100 words

The major hardships which threaten the division of Canadian mass media include the outcome relates to American cultural and economic imperialism. In this case, Canada still faces difficulties in identifying itself to the media.

Question 15.
Compare and contrast the Canadian context for journalists with the European and American contexts. Please reference Canadian Law in your response.

European journalists entail broader libel definition than the journalists in the United States and Canada. The united states journalists feel that the democratic press has no right to report the results of exit polls while the voting has not ended whereas in western countries like Europe the decision to vote or not depends with them. Moreover, Canadian journalist use social and their tools embedded on their knowledge and professional practice whereas European journalists have positive views about social media impacts. Moreover, the American journalists incorporate more detailed and less speculative information in the media for example the New York Times as compared to the European and Canadian journalists.

 

References

Edwards, J. B. (2012). Police Practice. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 81(6), 19.

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