Question We Can Help You To Answer

Answer the following questions in a written essay using and citing material from primary source documents, jstor.org, and your textbook: How was Andrew Jackson a symbol for his era? In what sense was his presidency a break from the past?

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

The U.S. Supreme Court issued its historic Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 347 U.S. 483, on May 17, 1954, calling for the desegregation of all schools. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) attempted to register black students in previously all-white schools in cities throughout the South. In Little Rock, the capital city of Arkansas, the Little Rock School Board agreed to comply with the high court's ruling. Virgil Blossom, the Superintendent of Schools, submitted a plan of gradual integration to the school board on May 24, 1955, which the board unanimously approved. The plan would be implemented the 1957 school year; September 1957. The Little Rock Nine were a group of African-American students enrolled in the Little Rock Central High School for the 1957 school year. The students were prevented from entering the school by Arkansas National Guard troops under orders from Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard, ordered them to stand down, and ordered the 101st Airborne to Little Rock to enforce school desegregation. That episode of desegregation is the subject of Kasey S. Pipes’ book Ike's Final Battle: The Road to Little Rock and the Challenge of Equality.  Your assignment is to read that book. Then, write an essay about race relations in America of that period (1950 -1960) that incorporates the concepts of integration versus segregation, the ideological positions of Eisenhower and Faubus regarding segregation in 1950’s America. Your essay must include both views and what effects it would have on race relations of the era. You must also include your opinion of which policy; integration or segregation, would work best in the society of that period.

Describe the ideological positions of Eisenhower and Faubus, and include your opinion of the “best” or “only” policy and why your policy choice; either integration or segregation of schools in the South, would be the better policy. Your opinion must be supported by facts from your research

 

 

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Beethoven; Art and Protest in the 1800s" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

Listen to one (1) composition (i.e., for a symphony) by Beethoven, a transitional figure between classical and romantic music. Identify the composition that you listened to, and determine whether you would characterize the chosen composition as either the Classical or Romantic style of music. Explain the key features that lead you to your conclusion. Identify one (1) modern musician who you believe was great at one type of music yet pioneered another.

Select one (1) example of a literary work or a work of visual art from the 1800s—either Romantic or Realist in style—that responds in some way to the Industrial Revolution. Identify the work and the artist or writer, describe its features and style, and explain the manner in which it responds to the Industrial Revolution. Identify one (1) specific literary or artistic work of our day that effectively protests a social injustice.

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Intrusions in Asia; Opera and Society and a Dilemma" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

Describe two (2) examples of how either black slaves or white abolitionists used literature or the visual arts as a form of protest against slavery. Compare this to a modern example of art used for social protest.

Describe the key motives involved in the increased presence of Westerners in India, China, and Japan in the 1700s and 1800s. Identify the key factors that led to Britain's successful imposition of its presence and trade policies on China, despite communications like those from Emperor Ch'ien-lung (i.e., Qianlong) and Commissioner Lin Zexu (i.e., Lin Tse-hsu). Argue for or against the British policies regarding China in the 1800s, using analogies from our own modern times.

Read, listen to, and watch the sources for the opera composers at the Websites below and in this week's Music Folder. Describe the major influences that Verdi, Wagner, or Puccini exerted upon opera in terms of making it more innovative, realistic, and even controversial. Next, consider Wagner and this dilemma: Wagner's brilliance is clear because his works remain some of the most popular and admired productions in our own time. Yet, he was a blatantly antisemitic and held notions of racial purity, traits that have stained his artistic legacy. (This was compounded by the later celebration of Wagner's music by Hitler and the Nazis). New York Times writer Anthony Tommasini wrote of Wagner in 2005: "How did such sublime music come from such a warped man? Maybe art really does have the power to ferret out the best in us." So, consider the issue of whether we should or can separate the artist from the art, whether we can appreciate the art but reject the artist. Or whether we should reject both the person and his or her art. Identify one (1) modern musician or artist where this dilemma arises.

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Please respond in a primary posting of at least 200 words. In addition, please make a substantive comment of at least 100 words to at least one [1] of your classmates. Subsequent comments may be shorter. Please use the sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

Describe two (2) specific aspects about the Great Wall of China, such as facts about its size, length, purposes, varied materials, labor force, and its phases of construction. Consider the various purposes of such a wall and its impact for good or bad, and compare the Chinese wall in this respect to some specific wall of more modern times.

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Please respond in a primary posting of at least 200 words. In addition, please make a substantive comment of at least 100 words to at least one [1] of your classmates. Subsequent comments may be shorter. Please use the sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

Describe the main purpose of the Hajj in the Muslim faith, and identify two (2) specific aspects of the Hajj that you find fascinating or significant. Next, explain the association between Muhammad and the area of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Lastly, describe the sacred art of Islam’s key qualities, and explain the fundamental reasons why Muslim artists of sacred works are reluctant to include images of humans (i.e., at least in sacred areas). Think of a place of worship (of any religion) today, and explain which type of artistic tradition would be more conducive to worship: Byzantine art (Chapter 8), Hindu art (Chapter 7), or Muslim art (Chapter 9).

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Tchaikovsky and Women in Art" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

Select one (1) composition by Tchaikovsky that you enjoy. Describe the music and subject matter of that work, and explain why you enjoy it. Explain the key reasons why you believe that compositions by Tchaikovsky continue to be popular with contemporary orchestras and audiences. Passionate nationalism, like Tchaikovsky's for Russia, could be a feature of Romantic art and music and in the arts of the late 1800s. Give primary examples of music today (besides national anthems) that is characterized by nationalism.

Select two (2) paintings depicting females by both a male artist and female artist named within the Explore section. Compare and contrast these two (2) depictions of women, and comment on any general tendencies that you detect among artists of that era in this respect. Compare this situation in the late 1800s to the way females are depicted in our own modern times, using at least one (1) specific modern example.

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Great Composers and Color Analysis" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

Determine whether you prefer Debussy or Mahler after listening to works by each at the Websites below or in this week's Music Folder and after reading about them. Explain the reasons for your preference. Here we find musical composers inspired by poetry and by philosophy. Identify one (1) element within a work that you find interesting or intriguing by either composer, with regard to the manner in which the work is performed or conducted. Describe the types of things that inspire you to creativity.

Describe two (2) color paintings by different artists (selected from the list or sources in the Explore section below) that you believe represent the following quote by Kandinsky on the subject of color in art. Justify your response. From Concerning the Spiritual in Art: “If you let your eye stray over a palette of colors, you experience two things. In the first place you receive a purely physical effect, namely the eye itself is enchanted by the beauty and other qualities of color. […] These are physical sensations, limited in duration. They are superficial, too, and leave no lasting impression behind if the soul remains closed. And so we come to the second result of looking at colors: their psychological effect. They produce a correspondent spiritual vibration, and it is only as a step towards this spiritual vibration that the physical impression is of importance. ... Generally speaking, color directly influences the soul." – Wassily Kandinsky. Discuss these ideas for the use of color and its impact in our own times, such as its effect for advertising and sales, or its impact in the workplace and home.

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Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Please respond in a primary posting of at least 200 words. In addition, please make a substantive comment of at least 100 words to at least one [1] of your classmates. Subsequent comments may be shorter. Please use the sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

Compare Angkor (and its temple, Angkor Wat) in southeast Asia (ca. 1100s-1200s AD) with the city of Benin in West Africa (ca 1400s AD), and discuss differences, similarities, and religious ideals in each place. Identify a modern day religious or political center that these call to mind.
Explore

Angkor and Benin –Southeast Asia and West Africa

Chapter 11 (pp. 375-6), Angkor Wat (in Cambodia), history and connections to Hindu beliefs; (pp. 386-7), Benin (in Nigeria, West Africa); Review "Week 6 Music" folder
Video on Angkor Wat at http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/specials/ancient-mysteries/angkor-wat-temples/
Benin City's history: See and http://africa.si.edu/exhibitions/current-exhibitions/alonge/history-of-benin/; (This city is in Nigeria; don't confuse it with the modern country called Benin not far away)

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 American history based on Native Americans and European settlers

Introduction

The American history from 1865 to 1918 shows industrialization rise and the results of immigration in America. Native Americans stayed in America long before European settlers arrived. There were many tribes which came from Asia. They crossed the border and came to live in America and became the Native Americans. Settlement of European settlers meant displacement of the native tribes. Conflicts began there between the natives and settlers. The Native Americans were hunters and gatherers where their history is well known by oral traditions. Conflicts became intense since Europeans displaced the natives forcing them to adapt their culture and made them abandon theirs. The natives’ culture was different from the culture of these settlers who advocated for Christianity. The natives practiced hunting, gathering and crop cultivation in order to earn a living. Land was owned communally where the immigrants advocated for change of that naïve culture. They came up with policies such that land would be owned individually where respect of ones property existed.

Indigenous people who lived in the local area

Europeans arrived in America especially in North Africa where they thought that they were in India and named the local people Indians. The name stuck and is still used even in today’s history. The Europeans settlement caused discomfort to the local people since the Europeans came to displace them in the name of exploration and advancement. Some of the local communities interacted well with the Europeans and adapted their living styles while some communities resisted the Europeans settlement (Barkan, 2013). Some of the displacement indigenous communities opted to preserve their traditional culture and decided to areas which Europeans did not want to settle. Native Indians stated declining when Europeans arrived. European came with dangerous diseases which affected the local communities and made them decrease in numbers. This was a good opportunity for settlers since they settled in such fertile lands when the natives died. Most of the native Indians suffered malnutrition and later death since their immune systems were not strong compared to those of settlers (Barkan, 2013). The communities were hunters and gathers while some practiced farming. Some people were efficient fishermen. They build their houses with the materials available in those territories since they were mainly nomadic (Barkan, 2013). They built temporally houses .the materials included dried animal skins, dried bricks and other materials depending on the area they settled. The settlers took the fertile farms and ended the culture of hunting. The white settlers grew in large numbers which made them move away from the coast and forced natives in the eastern part o f the country to move to unfertile lands in the west. Europeans displaced the plain Indians from their fertile eastern lands forcing them to settle in the parts they did not like (Barkan, 2013).

The white settlers brought horses to the country from Europe which contributed to increase in the number of horses especially among the native Indians. The horses made movement possible among the Native Indians in the plains where they used to hunt buffalos which were in large numbers there. These communities were hunters and gatherers which made it possible for them to get enough food together with clothing (Barkan, 2013). Most of the families decided to give up farming and relied on hunting buffalos in order to meet their economical needs as well as food. The communities lived a pastoralist and nomadic life where they moved from one place to another following buffalo herds found in the plains. The communities lived peacefully until the white settlers interrupted the peace by displacing them and disrespecting their cultures and traditions. In 1876, the American government displaced them forcing them to live in reserves (Barkan, 2013). They practiced traditional religion and believed in a supernatural being before the Europeans invaded them and forcefully made them abandon their culture, language and religion and join Christianity which was considered modern (Barkan, 2013). The husbands’ practiced hunting while the wives cooked food and took care of homes and children. Wives remained submissive to their husbands and respected the husbands. This made them exist in peace since the relationship was considered part of the cultural duty.

Discuss the first European explorers and settlers and how they interacted with the indigenous people. Why did the settlement mushroom into a major town?

It is believed that the first European explorers to reach America were Columbus. The main reason for settling at this location is that they were searching gold, silk, silvers and other valuable minerals. In addition, they were looking for new area to declare as their land. The Native America who introduced them to some of the Europeans potatoes, tobacco, vegetables and corns welcomed the first European explorers and settlers. On the other hand, the European explorers introduced these natives American to some of the European’s practices (Lyons, 2008). For instance, they exposed them to some of the new diseases such as smallpox, measles that were killing many of these Native Americans (Dent, 1995). They also introduced them use of guns and horses during wartime. The European Explorers and settlers interacted with the indigenous people first in a friendly manner. For instance, they brought them different types of foods and animals. They introduced them to some items such as tea and coffees. It is argued that the early settlers and explorers had influenced the indigenous people in different ways. For instance, they had devastating impacts on their land and they brought different cultures and religions into this country (Lyons, 2008).

In other words, the early European and explorers exposed these people to different things that they could not be in a position to know without them. For example, they introduced them to new diseases that were killing the Indigenous people. These may include measles and smallpox. It is believed that the European explorers and settlers had negative and positive impacts on the lives of the indigenous (Lyons, 2008). This is due to the fact that they changed their way of living by introducing them to agriculture. In relation to this, they changed their lives of prospect generations, forever. This is because of the fact that they exposed them to different things that they were not aware of when the first European explorers and settlers had not settled in America. Vasco dag Gama is also known as the earliest European explorers (Dent, 1995). He arrived in American in 1498. His main aim was to find a water way to Asia. This was his main achievement during his exploration as he discovered a water route to Asia and brought back some of the collection of spice and jewels that encouraged further research or exploration (Lyons, 2008). It is believed that the first European explorers were the first people to introduce to the gospel or the word of God to the indigenous (Lyons, 2008). This means that they changed their beliefs. The reason why they settled in mushroom settlement or a major town is the fact that they wanted to spread the word of Christianity. It is believed that missionaries who changed the lives of indigenous or native people accompanied the first European explorers. This is due to the fact that they introduced to them the word of God and spread it all over the country. Thus, there was need for them to settle in a major town in order to spread the word of God and make the non-believers know about Christianity.

Discuss how the area was affected by major historical events such as the American Revolution, Slavery, Immigration, Westward Expansion and the Civil War

 

Westward Expansion refers to the time when people started moving to the west of the entire country. This is because they were finding different ways of making the territories a state. In relation to this, they were finding a certain number of people who will become a member of the state. Most of the settlers were migrating to westward and this led to the rapid expansion of this place (Lyons, 2008). It is believed that most of the indigenous people who were located in westward were greatly influenced by the new settlers as they changed their way of lives. The area was also influenced by other historical events such as American Revolution. It is argued that the American Revolution had diverse effects on the political, social and economic parts of the indigenous people (Lyons, 2008). This is due to the fact that they allowed women to divorce their wife and gain some rights that will help them in future. Although slavery created different economic opportunities, it also led to some of the undesirable impacts on the lives of the indigenous people. For instance, it led to conflicts between the black Americans and White people (Lyons, 2008). They also mistreated the Native Americans. Large number of immigrants dominated the area. The immigration has various impacts, as there was increase of crimes and other unethical behaviours. It is believed that slavery led to many undesirable impacts as it left scars on black societies. Civil war was another historical event that affected the lives of the indigenous people (Lyons, 2008). For instance, it led to some of the known movements that were protecting the rights of these people. From the above point of view, it can be seen that some of the historical events had different effects on the lives of the indigenous people.

Ethnic origins of the Europeans that came to the area

Europeans were different from the native Indians in all aspects of life. Native Indians settled in America long time before the Europeans which brought conflicts when the white settlers appeared. The native Indians had considered that to be their land and were reluctant to let go. This brought conflicts and clashes between the two major groups. The history of the natives was oral and did not have written records unlike the Europeans. The settlers and the natives did not share anything in common right from language, religion and cultural beliefs. The Europeans culture was modern and advanced unlike the traditional culture of the natives. Most European groups shared common culture, religion, language and social behaviors (Stobaugh, 2012). Most Europeans had already developed weapons unlike the natives who fought using knives. Most of the natives did not resist and instead moved away to give space to the settlers who disrespected their traditional culture and forced them to adapt to their own. Europeans mode of thinking was different from the natives (Stobaugh, 2012).Europeans believed they were a superior race compared to the native Indians since they were more advanced technologically. Europeans lived in mansions which were permanent houses. They had good clothes; good and powerful weapons as well as their appearance intimidated the local communities who considered them as superior. Europeans were more educated thus were able to read and write compared to the natives. They regarded themselves as people of social high classes and intelligent people (Stobaugh, 2012). Europeans were educated people who believed in Christianity and believed that their faith was the only true faith. They believed that non Christians were all heathens. The fact that they believed Indians were non believers made them force them in to Christianity and eventually taking their native lands (Stobaugh, 2012). Christianity involved belief in God but the settlers did not practice what was written in the bible. They converted the Indians and killed those who refused Christianity by basing their argument to the bible. Most of the natives remained submissive to Europeans and accepted to be converted as well as their land taken away. Most Indians became slaves in their own lands through being subjected to slavery by the explorers together with the missionaries. Most of those who did not accept slavery fought back using bows and arrows which were minor compared to Europeans who had guns. This made it easier for the settlers to take the ancestral land from the natives (Stobaugh, 2012). Europeans were learned compared to Native Indians which made relationship within their families modern. Husbands and wives were regarded as equal where wives obeyed their husbands and respected one another. They were financially stable and had good income and were financially and economically developed. They lived in permanent houses while their neighbors lived in traditional houses. They built houses in the land they displaced the natives which made natives bitter and unhappy.

Conclusion

From the above discussion it is evidently seen that native Indians were the first people to settle in America. They considered the land their own until the settlers came to displace them. Technological advances, powerful weapons and education made Europeans feel more superior compared to the native Indians. Most European groups shared common culture, religion, language and social behaviors which made their relationship tight. Language differences between settlers and native Indians made them do away with the Native Indians culture and prohibited them from speaking their own language. The American government supported the Europeans settlers since they advocated for displacement of Native Indians who were put in reserves and made to suffer. Native Indians fought back for their land but due to Europeans powerful weapons they gave up the fight and moved away to other places leaving the Europeans to settle there. The European explorers and settles can be seen to have different impacts on the lives of the indigenous people. This is because they introduced them to many things such as new diseases that were killing large number of Native Americans. Additionally, the settlers were spreading Christianity and this changed their beliefs.

 

References

Barkan, E. R. (2013). Immigrants in American history: Arrival, adaptation, and integration. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Dent, R. J. (1995). Chesapeake prehistory: Old traditions, new directions. New York: Plenum Press.

Lyons.J.F,(2008). Teaching History Online. Routledge.

Stobaugh, J. P. (2012). American history: Observations & assessments from early settlement to  today. Green Forest, Ark: Master Books.

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 America’s involvement in the Vietnam War

 

Abstract

            The Vietnam War went down in history as one of the most unjustifiable wars in American history. To date, there has never been given enough justification as to why America decided to involve itself in Vietnam affairs. Despite the large number of casualties as well as waste of resources on that war, the American government sought to give its explanations as to why they directly and indirectly participated in the Vietnam War. Whether these justifications make sense at all depend on specific individuals.

Introduction

            The mention of Vietnam War is always synonymous with the involvement of American troops and the American government. There is no clear justification of the action of America entering this particular war. However, what is clear is the fact that by the end of this particular war not only was there massive loses and scars, but also a great impact on Americas history. This impact was characterized with by a lot of civil rights campaigns, one of the most discordant forces in twentieth century U.S. history. There were no particular reasons that were given in the particular movement; however, what was clear at the end of the day was that all the different movements were against the Vietnam War. Upon, the retraction of U.S forces from Vietnam; there have been attempts to explain/justify America’s participation in this particular war. For one to be able to understand this particular participation, America’s justification can be divided into three major reasons.

America’s justifications

Working relationship

            Prior to America’s involvement in Vietnam, the country had been under the colonial rule of the French rule. This rule had been a long one for it had extended from post world war II well into post the war. During this long period, the Vietnam people felt that they were being oppressed by the French both before and after WWII. The Vietnamese people were not happy with this rule and subsequently formed a party that would in effect fight against the French. This particular movement titled Viet Minh, under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, was formed right about the same time that Japan had effectively started a war with America by bombing the Pearl Harbor. This particular movement vowed to resist not only the French, but the Japanese as well (Statler, 2007). This acted in favor of America who would then set up an Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the CIA, on northern Vietnam. This working relationship between the Viet Minh movement and the OSS ensured that Viet Minh assisted with both the safeguarding as well as repatriation of American pilots who had been downed on Vietnam territory in their war against the Japanese and to a larger extend WWII. In addition, the movement assisted America as far as intelligence gathering was concerned. In return, the OSS, supplied Ho Chi Minh’s men with weapons and equipments. In this particular case, the U.S was aware of the reasons as to why the movement was fighting and made it clear that their interest in Vietnam was more convenient based rather than a sharing of political view.

            The U.S was however very reluctant in helping Vietnam in fighting the French in this particular period, during WWII, because of the situation at hand. Despite the efforts taken indirectly by Ho Chi Minh in showing that it particularly wanted to emulate the U.S through corporation as well as smaller gestures such as drawing from the declaration of independence, the U.S was still reluctant. The reason given for this particular reluctance was that there had been talks that to be able to grand Indochina, of which Vietnam was a part of, they would have to place it under trusteeship. America was afraid that this would set precedence for Britain who would then claim trusteeship of the U.S. Thus, America backed France in reclaiming colonialism over indoasia and effectively Vietnam (Daum et.al, 2003).

            The Vietnamese people would not give up. All through the 1940’s Ho Chi Minh and additional Vietnamese leaders made repetitive appeals to President Truman’s government and his American officials to aid in the achievement of independence from French colonial rule of the Vietnamese people (Anderson, 2011). This also fell on deaf ears. Having tried to communicate and ally himself with both the French and America, and his pleas similarly falling on deaf year, Ho Chi Minh opted for a different route, that of communism.

Communism

            Given a choice between communism and colonialism and America saw the later as a lesser of the two evils. America’s involvement in the Vietnam War came only after they threatened to go the communist way. At this point, it was clear that the Vietnamese people wanted independence and they would get it using whichever means (Gitlin, 2010). This did not sit well with most capitalist countries, the U.S included. At first, the U.S was not directly involved and only participated by supporting the French rule and supporting funds that would assist the French fight against the Vietnamese resistance movements.

            The cold war in this case also played an important role for both the French and the Americans were strong capitalist states and now firmly believed that communism had infiltrated into Vietnam. This era came immediately after WWII and most countries were interested in rebuilding and recovering from the war. In this capitalism for the U.S would ensure that development which was top on America’s agenda was ensured. America views shifted from being non-colonialist to being non-communism. Communism, they believed would derail in development as well as industrialization (Lewy, 1978).   The U.S believed therefore that due to France’s strong capitalistic ideas, they were likely to liberate Indochina from communist ideas that had infiltrated.

            There is also the fact that America had officially lost all faith in Ho Chi Minh whom they believed that despite the fact that he talked about capitalism had already embraced communism. This was evidenced in his works with Soviet Union, the Chinese Communist Party and the Comintern. In fact it is speculated that by the time the French finally surrendered and gave up to the communism scare had let to the U.S government spending three billion dollars they had ‘invested’ towards ‘saving Indochina from communism (Lind, 2002).

French withdrawal

            This event is what triggered the U.S real/physical involvement in Vietnam. The state government decided that it now wanted to create a South Vietnamese state that was both nationalist and democratic (Scigliano, 1964). America believed that with its backing and aid, they would be able to create a South Vietnam that was capable of resisting communism which was rampant in the north. They believed that if they had their way they would end up containing the communism rampart in the north by dividing the state into the southern nationalist and northern communist states. However, this ended up as a failure. On one end, the U.S stated that it was fighting for the interests of the South Vietnamese people while all along those interests were those of the U.S.

Conclusion

            Having the used that much resources, would on conclude that the U.S was justified in meddling in Vietnams affairs. History indicates that it was not. The fact is that they had been neutral and unresponsive from the very start. The reasons given for entering that particular war were not in the list justifiable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Anderson, D. L. (2011). The Columbia history of the Vietnam War. New York: Columbia University Press.

Daum, A. W., Gardner, L. C., & Mausbach, W. (2003). America, the Vietnam War, and the world: Comparative and international perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge   University Press.

Gitlin, M. (2010). U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub.

Lewy, G. (1978). Lewy: America in Vietnam C. Oxford University Press.

Lind, M. (2002). Vietnam: The Necessary War: A Reinterpretation of America's Most Disastrous Military Conflict. Simon and Schuster.

Scigliano, R. (1964). South Vietnam. Boston: Mifflin.

Statler, K. C. (2007). Replacing France: The origins of American intervention in Vietnam. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

 

 

 

 

 

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Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

One day sheikh Zayed asked by journalist “ when you building this country, why did you give your people free education, health care and free services” sheikh Zayed answered him “I gave them free education, accommodation, health care and free services because they are my children. How you cut off from your own children’s expenses?”

            Sheikh Zayed was not only a president; he was a father, an adviser and a leader. He was close to his people; he sat among his people and listened to their needs, chatting and laughing with them. He didn’t put any barrier between him and his people. He could be termed as humble.

The humble nature of this icon as well as his love for his people inspired him to bring change not only to his country but also to other citizens in other countries. He could be likened to a super hero who was always ready and willing to listen to the plight of the less fortunate and consequently do whatever was within his power to help these people. Thus, under his leadership a lot of charitable organizations were created that aimed at helping in one way or the other. One such example was the fact that he adopted as many orphans as possible not only in the EAU but also in other continents around the world. Other than his humanitarian efforts, the sheikh was a champion of environmental conservation efforts. For this, he received the champions of the earth award from the United Nations (Nādī Turāth al-Imārāt. et.al, 2001).

His ability to combine wisdom with leadership was evidenced when he advocated that both the father and mother in a family set-up should share activity that would be parenthood. This opened up the doors for women to actively seek employment. He stated that "Women have the right to work everywhere," he reasoned that "Islam gives women their rightful status, and encourages them to work in all sectors, as long as they are afforded the appropriate respect. The basic role of women is the upbringing of children, but over and above that, we have to support and encourage any woman who chooses to perform other functions." making him not only a shrewd leader but also a great parent to his people.

His wisdom extended to the policies that he created that were always in the best interest of his people. He shared the revenue brought in by oil to develop his people. These developments could be accessed by all his citizens and at no cost at all. He was not afraid of sharing the lands resources with his people (Morris, 1974). Furthermore his wisdom was responsible for the creation of peace without having to resort to bloodshed as was the case in the treaty of Jeddah.

His role as an insightful advisor played an important role in negotiations that he always made whether to benefit his own people or other countries in the world. His ability to provide solutions for even the toughest problem was impeccable. One such success was his key contribution in the formation of the EAU.

Sheikh Zayed was a leader like no other. He never looked down at people because of their station, gender, religion, ethnicity or even race. To him, humanity was what mattered in the long run. While the whole world benefited in one way or the other through this leaders virtuous personality, the people of EAU were the luckiest to have been under his leadership.

 

References

Morris, C. (1974). The desert falcon: The story of H. H. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahiyan, President of the United Arab Emirates. London: Morris International.

Nādī Turāth al-Imārāt., & Markaz Zāyid lil-Turāth wa-al-Tārīkh. (2001). Zayed, a photographic journey: Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Heritage Club, and Zayid Center for Heritage and History.

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FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR

Introduction

Frederick Winslow Taylor was an American mechanic engineer who wanted to improve the industrial efficiency. He was born in March 20, 1856 Philadelphia by Mr. Franklin and Emily Annette. Taylor died on March 21, 1915. His father Franklin was a Princeton law graduate while his mother Emily Annette was an abolitionist and feminist. During his childhood life, Taylor was regarded as self-disciplined child of wealthy and liberal parents. He prepared for college at Philips Academy in Exeter, N.H and was eventually accepted at Harvard. During his youth, his eyesight began to fail. However, by 1973 he became a machinists apprentice at enterprise at Hydraulic works in Philadelphia. In addition, by 1978, he took a job as a machine shop laborer at Midvale steel company. While he was still working there, having an age of 25 years, he went to school at night and he earned a degree in Engineering at the Stevens Institute of technology. At that pint he begins to become famous and he is regarded as the father of scientific management. In addition, he was one of the first consultants in the field of management. Taylor is regarded as one of the intellectual or thinking leaders of the efficiency movement and his ideas broadly influenced the progressive Era. In conjunction, Taylor is a controversial figure in the management of his history. Many of his innovations in industrial engineering, mainly in time and motion studies paid off in dramatic improvements in the entire productivity. In addition, he is accredited with the destruction of dehumanizing factories work that used to make people into automatons. He developed his theory of time, motion and various ways of improving productivity while observing the entire factory workers.

What is scientific management?

Scientific management according to Taylor involved improving operational efficiency at the bottom level. According to him, “scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.” This type of management is based on the analysis, planning and control functions of the job. This means that the job is accomplished making a set of analysis. Once this has been established the work is selected and trained scientifically. The role of management in this case is to determine which job or work individual employees are suitable for then (Koontz, 1990). This would also mean that the management is responsible for hiring and assigning the workers accordingly.

Under scientific management, the management is not responsible for how the work is executed but is responsible for how the work is carried out. Taylor believed that co-operation between the management and workers could enhance the work thereby producing better output (Griffin 2001). He referred to this as ‘mental revolution’ due to the fact that it creates mutual confidence, trust and understanding between the workers and management towards the goal of achieving the grater goal of higher production.

Scientific management can therefore be concluded as the art of knowing exactly what one wants from his workers and seeing that it is done in the best way possible. This is basically the application of science to management.

When Taylor first introduced this method in the late nineteenth century, it was very popular with the factories. This was preferred to the imperial ‘rule of thumb’ which had been used and had been used in the previous years (Koontz, et.al, 1990, p. 163).

Taylor’s scientific management theory

Taylor had noticed while working as a manager at the Midvale Company, that there was much disorder as well as wastage of human and other resources at the work place. The managers and workers in the company had no concept about systematic of efficient task performance. Under scientific management principle, the initiative of the workers which includes their hard work, their good-will, and their ingenuity, has to be obtained with absolute uniformity. Under this system, the managers were to receive new burden, responsibilities and duties. Taylor thus came up with four basic principles that would be applicable for the theory to fully function.

      

Principle 1

The first principle involved the replacement of the ‘rule of thumb’ also referred to as common sense or simple habit. This was to be replaced by evaluation which was a more scientific method. This principle means that management has to break the task into individual levels and determine which tasks were important and contributed to the final product and which ones did not (Miller, 2010, p.1). This principle ensures that the manager is held accountable for the result if they do not make the right decisions.

Principle 2

The second principle was that rather than just assigning workers to do any job, it is the duty of the manager to assign the worker to a job that they are capable of as well as motivated to do. Having archived that, it is their duty to ensure that they train the workers at a maximum efficient rate. This means that the manager has to scientifically choose, train, teach and develop the most suitable person for each job (Priestley, 2005, p.1). This also lands the duty of selecting the right people for each job and overseeing their training is with the organization mangers or senior employees. This ensures that the training is conducted correctly and professionally.

Principle 3

The third principle involves the Monitoring of workers performance, and provision of instructions and supervision to ensure that they’re using the most resourceful ways of working. This principle requires that the managers of the company stay involved and offer supervision to each worker to ensure the job is done in the best way suitable towards the organization goal.

Principle 4

The final principle involves the allocation of work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and training, and thereby allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently. The principle requires the managers to apply management principles to planning and supervising the work, and the workers carry out tasks handed down by the management (Miller, 2010, p.1).

Motivation

Taylor believed that motivation played as big a role as incentive in ensuring that the maximum work productivity. He believed that productivity improvements should result in improved pay. Workers are paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period per piece-rate pay. Workers are encouraged to work hard and maximize their productivity as a result. Taylor had found that workers that pay their workers more get better, happier, more efficient workers who make better products in increasing quantity. This means that if the workers efficiency led to improvement in profit margins, then it would only be right for the workers to share in a small part of the profit (Priestley, 2005, p.1).

It may therefore be concluded that Taylor proposed four great fundamental principles of management. First, there is need to develop a ‘science of work’ to replace old rule-of-thumb methods. Know and understand that pay and other rewards linked to achievement are of optimum importance. That it is important to measure work performance and output.

It is paramount that workers be scientifically selected and developed. This means training each worker to be the very best at some explicit task. That trained people be employed for the training of the workers to achieve the best results. Finally, the principle advocates that the work and responsibility in the company be divided equally between workers and management. This would mean that the two parties cooperate in close interdependence. To date, Taylor’s Scientific Management theories have developed and are still relevant and found within the modern workplaces.

Criticism of Taylor’s management

Although Taylor is scientific management are regarded as important as they enables the management to put resources to its best possible use and manner, it is also associated with severe criticism. Scientific management was associated with unemployment as workers felt that management reduces many job opportunities from them. For instance, through the replacement of men by machines and increasing human productivity thus making fewer workers who are needed to work. This in advance, leads to chucking out from job. In addition, workers who were laboring under the new scientific management were complaining about the unreasonable demands to speed work along at pace that was not sustainable over the long term (Anderson, 2001, p.350). In addition, the Taylor’s scientific management was known to put unnecessary pressures on the workers to perform the work. Due to the fact that importance was given to profitability and productivity, this resulted to exploitation of workers making them to join trade union. This in advance, led to mistrust between employees and management. As it is recognized that Taylor used functional foremanship, the workers were to report to eight bosses. This resulted to breakage of the principle of unity of command, where workers are ought to report to only one boss (Daft, 2011, p.25). This will create confusion and chaos in the entire organization.

The other problem is that his approach was a mechanical approach where he gives more importance to efficiency not considering human element. He considers his workers as robots who could speed up the work at any given cost. In relation to that, Taylor assumed that employees are motivated only by financial gains, despite the truth that employees are not only motivated by financial incentives but also personal egos and social needs. Taylor’s scientific management was said to separate planning from doing whereas in real sense it is difficult to separate planning from doing. Planners need also to be engaged in doing thus making realistic plans for the entire organization. It is also considered as an individualistic approach as it gives too much concern to individual performance not to the group performance. For an organization, to become successful it is ought not only to rely on individual performance of workers but also on a group performance of workers.

Application of Taylor’s scientific management in today’s world

Taylor’s scientific management is currently used in Today’s world more especially in current economy. In addition, Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management is being used in organizations. For instance, organization can use it to streamline their roles in organization. In addition, it helps to develop and train people to be subject matter experts. This will in advance turn to put the right people in the right job. In addition, militaries employ these scientific managements. For instance, all but wage incentives for increased output are used by modern military organizations.

Management requires good decision making skills. Prior to the Taylors invention, Managers used to make many gut-based decisions or their own life experience. Managers today however are relying on cold-hard facts to facilitate the decisions they make. A popular example of the application of scientific management is the Metrics-based management. This Management makes sure that statistics are collected on the area of their responsibility. An example of this would be the web metrics that tracks user clicks on any given website. Using this technique, the managers are able to show which parts of the site are most popular, which ones are not being used, and what search terms people are using to get to their sites.

Conclusion

The scientific management theory has played an important role in today’s world other than in organizations. On a global level, it may be concluded that this method has raised different countries standards of living by ensuring workers productivity as well as efficiency. This can be attested by countries such as the United States, Canada, and France who have in their own way applied the principle. Thus, Frederick Winslow Taylor played a very important role in the world of management by introducing not only logic and order but also a sense of corporation and gratitude. In essence Taylor made management more manageable.  

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

ANDERSON, N. (2001). Organizational psychology: [...]. London [u.a.: Sage.

DAFT, R. L. (2011). Understanding management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

KOONTZ H. & WEIHRICH H. (1990). Essentials of management (5thed). New York: McGraw-Hill.

MILLER, B. (2010). Frederick Winslow Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management – Still Valid in Today’s Workplace? Retrieved from, http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2913674/frederick_winslow_taylors_principles_pg3.html?cat=3.

MINDTOOL (n.d.). Frederick Taylor and scientific management. Retrieved from, http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_Taylor.htm

PRIESTLEY S. (2005). Scientific Management in 21st Century. Retrieved from, http://www.articlecity.com/articles/business_and_finance/article_4161.shtml.

STONER J. A., EDWARD F. R., GILBERT, D. R. (2003). Management (6th ed). New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India.

 

 

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