Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

    Review the Engstrom case study, looking specifically at organizational issues and address the following:
So here is a brief outline of what you are to submit. Again, notice there is no introduction nor conclusion in the outline. Please include citation and use APA format.

I.    Original issue 1 (Plant productivity decrease) 
II.    Determine Root Cause with behavioral perspective for original issue 1 (research is a must)
III.    Impact of poorly aligned theories or concept with behavioral perspective for original issue 1(research is a must)
IV.    Original issue 2 (Decrease Morale)
V.    Determine Root Cause with behavioral perspective for original issue 2(research is a must)
VI.    Impact of poorly aligned theories or concept with behavioral perspective for original issue 2(research is a must)
VII.    Original issue 3 (Management and Employee division)
VIII.    Determine Root Cause with behavioral perspective for original issue 3(research is a must)
IX.    Impact of poorly aligned theories or concept with behavioral perspective for original issue 3(research is a must)
X.    Original issue 4 (Product Quality Issues)
XI.    Determine Root Cause with behavioral perspective for original issue 1 (research is a must)
XII.    Impact of poorly aligned theories or concept with behavioral perspective for original issue 1(research is a must)

 

211 Words  1 Pages

Questions We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

Assignment Instructions
Learning objective: Describe technology and its impact on business decisions.

Prompt:
Describe the four components of an information system. Why is it important to consider each of them when designing and installing an information system?  

Instructions:
Prepare a formal 250 - 500 word essay
Your essay should include an introductory paragraph and a conclusion.
Follow APA format for structure. Your references page should be titled "References" and listed on a separate page from the body of your work.  An APA template is attached here.  Support your essay with 2 to 3 credible references beyond the course materials.  Please note Wikipedia, Investopedia and similar websites are not credible academic references.

120 Words  1 Pages

Question We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

To what extent can an organisation culture affect its receptivity to change and be innovative?

 

24 Words  1 Pages

Question We Can Help You To Answer

Paper instructions:

Country Assessment Paper 
Product: Toy
Country: Japan
The issues to be researched and discussed:  Economic and legal issues
Minimum 5 references 

30 Words  1 Pages

Questions We Can Help You To Answer

This is a networking assignment .  We are to attend two networking events.  The above criteria for each event and meeting are required to be met for this assignment. For the networking  events (https://www.eventbrite.ca/e/fulfilling-lives-at-work-employment-across-the-autism-spectrum-tickets-43626058716?aff=es2) and (https://www.eventbrite.ca/e/durham-colleges-hr-networking-event-tickets-44042317758?aff=es2)  you write the paper based on the event in this link . where it says to report the names and contact information of people you met at the event make it up as well. i want this paper written like you went to the event.

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  The impact that organizational culture

‘Critically evaluate the impact that organizational culture has on both internal corporate communication and team dynamics’. Use the case study to develop your answer. Use academic theory to support your discussion.

Introduction

An organizational culture is described as the way an organization shares its activities and values among employees in the company. This includes the lifestyles and behaviors of the people in that particular organization including lifestyles and characters. It includes all the rules, regulations and responsibilities all employees are supposed to fulfill in a given organization. It is the guidelines that enable all employees realize their duties in the organization and ways of handling themselves as well as other people in the organization. It entails employees’ relations in the company. Employees’ relations can be described as the various processes laid down by a given company in order to make sure that there is good working environment for employees. Employees must be committed to their jobs. Employers should also respect rights of employees. This is done in order to avoid conflicts in the organizations as a way of promoting unity and good interaction between employees and employers. An organizational culture involves ways of achieving the set goals and objectives in the organization. It involves various measures and standards used by various people especially managers for the well being of the organization. It involves methods and guidelines given to employees by employers and ways of following them. An organizational culture maintains a good organizational behavior and is able to ensure that high standards are maintained in that organization. It entails use of motivation in order for employees to work harder and achieve the set goals and objectives. It involves various methods used by employers in order to ensure that employees remain motivated and are qualified to carry out the given duties and responsibilities in an organization.

Impact that organizational culture has on communication

The culture of most organizations is dynamic and keeps changing depending on the type of management employed in the company. Organizational culture is important since it ensures that employees are able to meet the set standards where every employee is entitled to a single responsibility which they should achieve. Organizational culture affects the organization by impacting on the environment employees are exposed to (Schein, 2010, P.164). For example in Carmarthen Building Supplies Ltd, the working environment is not good enough for employees to work hard and achieve the set rules. There are no clear guidelines and policies employees followed unlike in other companies where managers for employees to follow lay down rules and regulations. Employees are few in this company and are not motivated thereby absenteeism and boredom is seen in this company. The organizational culture in this company is negative and contributes to poor performance of both managers and other staffs in the company. It does not maintain good relationship between managers and employees whereby managers make decisions without including employees. This means failure to the company since decisions are well made when other junior employees are involved since they know many problems at the root level. Such a company with a negative organizational culture, unqualified and unmotivated staff and where rules and guidelines are laid down is an example of a company experiencing failure (Senior & Swailes, 2010, P.117).

Good communication is needed for an organizational culture to remain positive and lead to good performance (Morschett et al, 2010, p.116). In the Carmarthen Building Supplies Ltd, communication is not appropriate since employees are not aware of their rights and duties. Employees are not aware that they should report to managers when sick and ask for permission to remain absent. Employees are not aware that they remain answerable to managers. Proper communication is necessary in organization in order for information to flow easily from managers to employees and vice versa. Good communication entails use of strategies by the top managers in order to ensure good performance. Top managers in the company are skilled people who work towards success of the company drawing their effort from their CEO. The corporate governance strategies are useful in ensuring good relationship between stockholders and the managers (Morschett et al, 2010, p.116). Managers use their skills in ensuring success is achieved and respect is maintained among all staffs in the company. Top managers work at ensuring long term success and sustainable growth and development. Top managers are keen to observe the environmental laws as a way of following government policies. The top manager in Carmarthen Building Supplies Ltd, Gareth, noticed that this company lacked many important features which other companies had. The company operates on a relatively tall structure. From the CEO, we have the general manager who is followed by other regional managers. Other employees follow regional managers. This is a simple structure of management. The company uses centralized mode of decision making. This unlike centralization does involve several procedures in making vital decisions of the company since decision making determines failure or success of a company. The mode of decision making has led to failure of the company. The company should employ modern technology order to fasten the process of decision making. It should promote people in accordance with skills and experience and qualifications (Senior & Swailes, 2010, P.117).

Sources of distinctive competences include customers’ relations, market relations and technological influences. The company designs its structure such that it is not favorable to customers who are the most important people in the company. It should ensure that customers’ satisfaction and efficiency is maintained and provision of quality service is possible. The company uses a matrix structure in its management. It should use its control systems to provide quality services to its customers (Morschett et al, 2010, p.116). The structure of the company does not support business strategies and models in the company under leadership of the top management. The company does not respect its employees, customers and other stakeholders. It does not motivate its employees as well as providing affordable services to the clients. The company does not motivate its employees as one way of promoting success. Motivated employees work hard in order to achieve success (Smith et al, 2013, p.65). Management should ensure that resources are available and staff employed is qualified. Organizations should ensure that skilled staff is there in order to maintain success of the businesses. Managers should be flexible in order to change with the changing strategies and technological changes. Managers should ensure that its competitors do not outdo the company (Huczynski, et al, 2010, p.245). Managers should identify the problems faced by the company and come up with reliable and efficient solution to ensure success of the company. The objectives and aims the company should be achieved by managers applying their management skills. Managers should make sure that the plans are well implemented and that the set goals and objectives are maintained. This makes the company remain strategically fit thus ensuring success in that company.

Impact that an organizational culture has on internal corporate culture

An organizations culture is important since it ensures that the internal corporate culture is well maintained and followed. Gareth was able to bring changes to the company since he had knowledge and was highly qualified unlike the previous manager. Internal corporate culture ensures that employees relate well with the employers and with each other. Success is only achieved when employees work towards achievement of the set goals with help and motivation from employers (Huczynski, et al, 2010, p.245). Managers should come up with various corporate strategies in order to achieve and maintain high performance. Managers come up with international corporate strategies like motivation and especially promoting deserving employees. Managers should have leadership skills and decentralize the process of decision making since employees should be involved in making important decisions in a business. Employees are the key shareholders of the company and customers as well. In this building company, Gareth noted that the staff did not treat customers, as they deserve which kept many customers away. Employees should treat the customers in a friendly manner since customers are pleased by good services. The company failed initially since employees handled clients in an irresponsible way which Gareth solved as a good and qualified manager (Hayes, 2010, p.321). The employees were not qualified in the company which also affected the company’s success. Success is only achieved if employees are skilled and properly trained. The new manager impressed the owner as part of the internal environment since performance started shooting positively. The kind of staff employed in part of the internal corporate showing that unqualified staff will definitely lead to poor performance.

Managers are important people in the company. They ensure that information flows right from the senior employee to the juniors. They supervise the juniors and guide them on ways of achieving success. They also train new employees and initiate them in to the organizations culture. Respect is necessary between employees and the manager. They should all stand to be corrected (Hayes, 2010, p.321). Managers should ensure that the given resources such as finances are well maintained and efficiently utilized in order to achieve the set goals. Plans should be achieved effectively in order for the organization to achieve. The building company did not have prior plans and set goals thus employees did not work in order to achieve much. Plans should be laid down and resources allocated for them to be completed in time. Without planning, an organization cannot remain successful. In the company there were no clear set guidelines and rules thus employees did whatever they felt like. Lacking plans lead to failure of the company since there are no standards and rules to guide the entire company (Hayes, 2010, p.321). Good managers are able to come up with strategies and rules which govern the entire company. This clearly outlines responsibilities of each individual and ways of carrying out themselves when performing those responsibilities in the company. Organizations should therefore employ skillful managers since managers as the overall head can either direct a company to failure or achievement.

Impact that organizational culture has on team work

Team work in an organization is important since it leads to cooperation between employees in the organization. Good managers are able to poses team work skills and are able to bring employees together regardless of the different cultures and background. Tuck man’s theory is used to show various stages of team working. Tuckman uses a four process model in order to show the importance of team work in a particular organization which is not seen in Carmarthen Building Supplies Ltd. the four processes include forming, norming, storming and performing.

Forming as stage one process

Here, the leader is responsible for providing guiding and counseling to the junior employees. Responsibilities of each individual should be made clear (French, 2011, p.119). The leader is able to answer many questions asked by the individuals in a comprehensive way. Individuals focus on the daily responsibilities and are able to learn more about each other. Different feelings on certain issues are avoided in this stage as individuals learn from one another and enhance cooperation. Individuals are able to learn the importance of tasks given to them, scope the task should take, and ways of solving that particular task (French, 2011, p.119). Conflicts must be avoided in order to maintain cooperation in this comfortable stage. The team is able to meet and discuss on ways of achieving the set goals of that organization in the best way possible. Team members are able to learn the challenges ahead and are able to come up with ways of solving such threats to the organization. The members of the team remain motivated and are able to focus towards success of the organization and members are independent in this stage. The members of the team are focused on maintaining success but often focus more on themselves. Some team members are able to behave well and mature even at this first stage of team working which shows they are well prepared (French, 2011, p.119). This stage is important in an organization since it ensures different individuals are able to learn and understand each other better. Members exchange ideas and knowledge and are able to learn different things and this promotes socialization and making of new friends. In these stage managers learn how different employees can handle issues even when faced with challenges and are able to know how each employee work even under given pressures.

Storming as stage two process

This stage is important since it ensures that the team grows positively. This stage is unpleasant to members who are prone to conflicts. Members in this stage remain tolerant and put their differences aside. Failure for members to remain tolerant means failure for the organization. In this building company members are not tolerant thus leading to conflicts between employees and managers (Burnes, 2009, p.231). This stage should be well controlled in order for success to be achieved. Patience and motivation should be well seen in order for members to remain united as a team. Most teams fail at this stage and fail to develop since members fail to remain tolerance and exercise patience. Supervisors in this stage are accessible to other members of the group but are more concerned with achieving the set goals instead of developing the group. Team members are therefore given chance to settle the disputes and differences more easily and comfortably. They are able to do so since they are not supervised and are free to share their views, ideas and opinions. At times arguments and tension are experienced as members share their different opinions and this can be upsetting. Members should control themselves in order to pass through this stage to the next phase if team work is to remain prosperous. This stage is important since it shows the patience of members and methods of solving their differences in the best way (Burnes, 2009, p.231). Team work is made possible through tolerance of the members since everyone is subjected to their different views and opinions. Respect is the key factor which ensures that team work is made possible. People should learn to respect other people’s views and opinions in order for conflicts to be avoided.

Norming as stage three

In this stage, the team is able to settle at achieving one goal as a team. Some members are able to give up their views and ideas and settle for one main objective and goal (Brooks, 2008, p.211). Team members take up their duties, responsibilities, and work hard in order to achieve the set goals. Members here work towards preventing further conflicts and different but remain reluctant in sharing ideas that could contribute towards achieving success of the group. Some members fear that sharing their opinions could lead to further conflicts. The group is entitled to sharing social activities. The group members respect each other and the leader in order to work towards achievement of the set goals (Brooks, 2008, p.211). The group members agree and are working toward achieving the agreed goals. This stage is important in an organization since it shows how different people are able to handle responsibilities and methods of achieving the already set goals. Carmarthen Building Supplies Ltd did not introduce team work in its organization thus one factor leading to poor performance. Team work ensures that employees are able to relate well, handle responsibilities and challenges as a group and in a good manner. This stage ensures that people remain focused and can solve their differences on time and contribute positive ideas in the group.

Performing as the fourth stage

Most groups do not reach this stage. Only the high performing groups are able to reach this stage. The members are able to work with minimal supervision and are able to remain successful. The members are able to solve their differences appropriately without supervision. The members are motivated and have the appropriate knowledge. The members in this stage are able to make decisions without seeking help and remain competent towards achieving the already set goals. Members are faced with dissent but are allowed since it is well channeled so that it will not lead to failure of the group (Burnes, 2009, p.231). Supervisors participate in this stage since the group is making important and effective decisions. Members are able to look at the previous made decisions and can decide to change them if need be. Most organizations go through the four different stages in team making. The team building process is altered through change of leadership. For example in this building company, the leadership was changed. Gareth as a new manager would have ensured that he makes team work possible since the previous manager had not made it possible. Good managers should have good team work skills in order to ensure teams reach the performing face where most groups do not reach (Bloisi, 2006 p. 112). Managers should work towards achievement of goals and ensure the working environment is appropriate for employees. Leaders should supervise high performing member in a minimum manner in order to motivate them and ensure they are left free to make important decisions. Performing groups are usually motivated. Motivated members work towards success of the group unlike those unmotivated members. Managers should ensure that the employees remain motivated for success to be achieved (French, 2011, p.119).

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is clearly discovered that communication, internal corporate culture and team work are the key factors towards achievement of success. In this company, Gareth as the manager tries to maintain success through coming up with strategies that lacked earlier and setting goals that employee should work hard in order to achieve. As a good and qualified manager, he discovered that many things lacked in this company and thus changed the company’s way of carrying out things. Under his management, the owner is impressed since the performance starts to become positive. Thus, an important lesson to organizations is that managers should be skillful and qualified in order to guide and act as role models for other junior employees to follow. Good management leads to success of the company while poor management with skillful employees leads to poor performance. Employees should respect clients, which was different in this company. Clients are important since without them an organization cannot operate. Thus clients should be provided with the best services as a way of maintaining them and attracting many more. Organizations should therefore employ skilled and qualified staff right from the senior most to the junior if success is to be achieved.

 

 

 

 

References

Bloisi, W. 2006. Management and Organisational Behaviour. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.

Brooks, I. 2008. Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organisation Organisation.  4th edn. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.

Burnes, B. 2009. Managing Change. 5th edn. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.

French, R. 2011. Organizational behaviour. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley.

Hayes, J. 2010. The theory and practice of change management. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D. 2010 Organizational Behaviour Behaviour. 7th edn. New York; Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Morschett, D., Schramm-Klein, H., & Zentes, J. 2010. Strategic international management text and cases. Wiesbaden, Gabler.

Schein, E, 2010. Organisational Culture and leadership. 4th edition. Houndsmil: Palgrave

Senior, B., & Swailes, S. 2010. Organizational change. Harlow, Essex, England, Pearson Education.

Smith P, Farmer M & Yellowley W 2013 Organizational Behavior 360 Degree Series.

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Making Decisions

  1. Identify the criteria and factors, identified in this week’s reading, that are relevant when making decisions as a manager or leader.

Integrity is one of the factors a manager considers when making important decisions. Decisions made by managers are crucial since they determine success or failure of that particular organization. Managers should be careful when making decisions affecting organizations. Integrity should not be limited and should be focused by managers if success is to be achieved. Respect is another key factor that managers should focus on when making decisions affecting other stakeholders in organizations (Moua, 2004). Managers should respect decisions and suggestions raised by other employees. They should not ignore junior employees since respect leads to success. Managers should be creative and involve teamwork. Teamwork is necessary since managers are able to know problems and challenges facing other employees in the organization.

  1. Taking the two examples (one example of right versus right moral dilemma, and one example of right versus wrong from your work experience) that you identified in week one, what criteria and factors were considered during the examination of the issue or dilemma?

Advice is the key to start solving problems the boy had, which is an example of right against right dilemma. People are given advices but are left to make their own decisions. Individuals are directed and given advices but should make their own decisions. Decisions made should be right in order to avoid negative consequences. The boy was given advices because of his parent s behavior but he is the only one who had power to make his own decisions that will affect his life. Important decisions should involve key people who are of help to people’s lives. People should be careful when making decisions that affect their lives (Moua, 2004). In the case of managers, they should make right versus right decisions that will lead to success of the organization. Managers should make decisions since their lives mainly focus on their personal and professional lives. They should differentiate their personal life from professional life. They should involve other staff members when making key decisions regarding progress of organizations. Managers should help their employees in their decision making processes which leads to good relationship between juniors and leaders. Right versus wrong dilemmas are also experienced by managers (Ganim & Fox, 2009). Managers should be careful in order to avoid wrong and unprofessional decisions that will lead to failure of most organizations. They should learn on ways of overcoming challenges and solving problems in organizations and they should make good decisions that will promote success in organizations.

  1. What decision-making criteria were ultimately used? •What steps were taken to identify the values and rights of stakeholders?

The first criterion used is identifying objectives leading to decisions being made. The objectives are grouped together and sorted where important ones come first. Managers then look for appropriate actions to take in regard with the outlined objectives. Managers then look for alternatives in regard to the laid objectives (Ganim & Fox, 2009). The alternative that everybody agrees on is then taken to be the best decisions made. A group of people makes decisions since one person is prone to many errors. Rights of shareholders are important and should be observed. The major step taken was to educate people on importance of observing those rights. This enables people identify importance of observing those rights.

  • How were policy and legal requirements recognized?

The policy and legal requirements were recognized through education and creation of awareness. Decisions made should not affect other people negatively. They should respect rights of people according to business ethics where respect should be maintained. Right decisions made should bring success to individuals and promote respect for each other.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ganim, B., & Fox, S. (2009). Visual journaling: Going deeper than words. Wheaton, Ill: Quest Books, Theosophical Pub. House.

Moua, M. (2004). The moral dilemma of right versus right: Moral leadership in the study of  U.S.-Laos normal trade relations and human rights issues.

 




 

 

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 Decision Making in Airline Industry

Introduction

            This research proposal aims at finding how an airline industry determines their decision making. It includes the literature review that consists of different information concerning the decision making in an Airline industry. The literature review will be formulated in a way that it relates to the research question or the purposes of the research. The paper also discusses different methods that will be used to research information on decision making in an airline industry. This will include different methods that will be used to analyze data. The paper will be organized in a way that all the sources used to collect data can be easily identified. It also consists of the research methodology and procedures that are used to accomplish the research objectives. It also includes various limitations that will be encountered during the research. Lastly, it will present different ways used to communicate data and a conclusion that summarizes the whole proposal.

Research questions

  1. Determining decision making in an airline industry
  2. An investigation to establish the impacts of decision making regarding customers in an airline industry

Purpose(s)

This research aims at determining the decision making in an airline industry. Additionally, it will investigate the impacts of decision making regarding customers in an airline industry.

Literature review

Various theories have been put across in understanding the importance of customer service in an organisation especially in the airline industry. The common theory used in this case is the theory of customer service. According to (Binggeli et al, 2013, p.22), theory of customer service is based on satisfying and indentifying customer’s needs and most importantly meeting their expectations. The airline industry should be in a position to ensure commitment of delivering quality services to their customers in order to retain and gain customers loyalty which is the basis of sales generation (Binggeli et al, 2013, p.22). Organisation management and the staffs must be customer focused and have a common goal of meeting the customer’s wants. Decision making is necessary to ensure customers are treated right in order to ensure success of the industry. According to this theory, creation of customer service culture within an organisation is fundamental in ensuring the success of the organisation. This theory asserts that customer loyalty and satisfaction are closely connected to the quality of customer service and, essentially, to the industry’s profitability through good decision making strategies.

According to Yu (2002), failure of a company to grasp principles good decision making strategies, survival and performance will be hindered. According to Yu (2002), an effective decision making strategy that aims to ensure customer satisfaction is the basis of the theory of competition. To ensure successful operations of an organization, organizations must realize the essence of making customers’ needs as well as making effective decisions paramount. In this regard, profit seeking airline industries regardless of motivation are often forced by the competitive nature of the business environment to ensure proper and effective customer services as a way of retaining and gaining loyalty (Binggeli et al, 2013, p.22). Most importantly, treating customers with respect and ensuring proper relation is fundamental in enhancing business returns. Decision making should involve all staff members in order to term it as effective. Airlines with good decisions making strategies achieve a good customer care service which in turn promotes profits. To achieve profits within an airline industry, companies must ensure an effective decisions making culture; this will involves ensuring comprehensive training and development to the organization’s staffs as a way of providing excellent customer service (Demydyuk, 2011, p.42). In addition, companies should give power to staffs to create decisions that aim to ensure customers satisfaction. This theory also suggest the importance of a company to understand it customers through profiling them. According to Yu (2002), organizations should ensure an effective relationship with the customers through listening to their issues and concerns. Essentially, often dialogue with the customers is fundamental. According to the theory of customer service, companies have the responsibility of ensuring that the customers are well informed about organizations undertaking including special promotions and discounts (Prince & Simon, 2009, p.338). In addition, organizations should be flexible in regard to changing based on the customer’s expectations (Demydyuk, 2011, p.42). Companies should be in a position to provide new services and products that aims to ensure customer’s satisfaction. This is made possible through effective decision making strategies. Decision making strategies are important for the airline industry if success is to be achieved. Managers are the key decision makers and should be careful since some decisions if not well made can lead to failure of the airline industry (Punzel, 2011, p.43).

Research methods

Secondary data

Data collection

With the help of qualitative research, data will be collected through interviewing the respondents (United States, 2007, p.23). The interview question will be structured to allow the respondents fill in their honest opinion. The question will be in general form such that they will fit the context of all genders.

Data Analysis

Extracts from the interview will highly help in data analysis. The respondents are expected to fill in data in the questioners provided hence this information will be vital to carry out the analysis.

Presentation of the results

The results on the data obtained from interviewing the respondents will be presented by use of content analysis. The process will initiate collecting similar information with specific characteristics and recording it under on group.

Methodology

The appropriate methodology to carry out this research is qualitative method. This is because this approach aims at investigating in-depth the purpose of decision making in the airline industry in order to ensure profitability. This methodology is simple and provide accurate in terms of the data collected. This research methodology will be supported with use of questioners and interviews which will be used to involve the respondents. The methodology of this research is based on the theoretical foundation and hypothesizes. The main respondents will be the customers or the people affiliated to this company because they have the necessary needed knowledge to answer the research questioners. The aim of qualitative methodology is to confirm whether decision making strategies re effectively used in the airline industry and how they affect customers in the industry.

The research design will be based on the ability of the respondents to understand the purpose of the study. Open ended questioners will used in this research. Questionnaires are appropriate for this research because it is compatible and consistent to address all research questions which are supposed to be addressed by the end of the study. Each and every respondent will be given his or her own questioners which will be filled in according to their own understanding. The questioners will be open ended in order to give the respondents a chance to share their honest opinion without necessarily restricting them on particular topic.

Different customers will be interviewed randomly and their answers and opinions recorded down in an analytical table. The meaning and relevance of the result will be tested with the manner which the respondent will accurately answer the research questions. All information and data collected will be recorder precisely to await the later stage of analyzing them.

Justification for these methods

The qualitative method of research is used in this proposal and is accurate in giving information since use of questionnaires and surveys is effectively used (Saunders et al, 2009, p.45). Qualitative method is accurate and detailed thus ensuring the research is conducted appropriately and in the right time.

Limitations

  • Some of the customers were not giving adequate
  • It was very hard to interview all the participants.
  • Take longer time when interviewing all the customers who were willing to provide information.

Primary data

Data collection

The data regarding the impacts of decision making regarding to customers in airline industry will be collected with help of questioners and interviews (Anderson, 2013, p.3).

Sampling

Data will be sampled by use of probability method

Ethical considerations

  • First, we will obtain permission from customers as we start carrying out our research.
  • Carry out things that will not cause physical or emotional harm to the customers.
  • Report the exact data that was gotten after carrying out the research.
  • The participants (customers) will receive fully protection such that the data they will give will be confident to unsure trust between both sides. Data protection is vital to make sure the respondents are not prone to any kind of harm.

 

Validity and reliability

Validity generally bases with aspects of the assurance that the questions constructed are phrased to the central point of research whereas reliability generalizes with the aspects of ensuring that if the study was to be conducted again with the same questions and parameters, the results will be similar and consistent(Anderson, 2013,p.3). The research will ensure validity through connecting the research design, background and the methodology and link each other appropriately and more so focusing on the overall guide and expectations as per the research questions and hypothesis. During interviewing the customers, we will only interview all customers who will be willing to provide information.

Communication of the results

The results will be communicated through use of graphs, tables and pie charts. The audiences of this research are customers in the airline industry who are affected by decisions made by the industry (Anderson, 2008, p.122). The channels of communication include the managers to the customers through the department of customer care services. Internet is also used in effecting communication in the industry which enables customers are kept informed on major decision making strategies.

Conclusion

From the above research paper it is evidently seen that the airline industry is profitable from its choice of decisions. The hospitality department is keen at making good decisions that will promote profits to the industry. Qualitative method of research is effectively and accurately used in order to ensure the research is effective. The airline industry is successful depending on the decisions made by managers in the industry. Decisions making process should ensure that all staffs are successful part of the process. This research describes impacts of decision making in regard to customers since airline industry is a major industry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Anderson, D. R. 2008. An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Mason, OH, Thomson/South-Western

Anderson, D. R. 2008. Quantitative methods for business. Mason, OH, Thomson/SouthWestern.

Anderson, D. R. 2013. Quantitative methods for business.

Binggeli, U, Dichter, A, & Weber, M 2013, 'The economics underlying airline competition', Mckinsey Quarterly, 4, pp. 20-21, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 May 2014.

Demydyuk, G 2011, 'OPTIMAL FINANCIAL KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EVIDENCE FROM THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY', Accounting & Taxation, 3, 2, pp. 39-51, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 May 2014.

Prince, J, & Simon, D 2009, 'MULTIMARKET CONTACT AND SERVICE QUALITY: EVIDENCE FROM ON-TIME PERFORMANCE IN THE U.S. AIRLINE INDUSTRY', Academy Of Management Journal, 52, 2, pp. 336-354, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 May 2014.

Punzel, T. (2011). Risks and Decision Making Using the example of British Airways. Munich, GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. 2009. Research methods for business students. New York, Prentice Hall.

United States. 2007. Pilot's encyclopedia of aeronautical knowledge. Oklahoma City, OK, Federal Aviation Administration].

Yu, G. 2002. Operations research in the airline industry. Boston, Mass. [u.a.], Kluwer Academic Publ.

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Date

Article Review

Article: Song, Michael, Roger J. Calantone, and C. Anthony di Benedetto. "Competitive Forces And Strategic Choice Decisions: An Experimental Investigation In The United States   And Japan." Strategic Management Journal 23.10 (2002): 969-978. Business Source Complete. Web. 2 May 2014.

Introduction

Competitive forces model can be defined as a model that is used by managers to illustrate the interaction of some outside influences of an organization. These may include threats and opportunities that may affect an organization’s strategy and its ability to compete with other organizations. In simple terms, competitive forces model is a type of model that is used to describe some of the factors that may influence the competitive position of a company in a market. These may include the bargaining power of buyers, threats posed by new entrants and competition among the existing companies in the industry. This essay will present an article that relates to Competitive forces model.

 

Summary of the article

The article discuses some of the ways in which managers uses competitive model while addressing external influences in an organization. The key decisions made by managers include leadership and focus towards achieving set goals and objectives. Managers therefore form simple business models as a way of coping with the competitive business environment. In this article, companies in Japan and United States are used to show how strategic decisions are made in order to run the companies successfully. There are a number of competitive forces which include the power of consumers, threats by given substitutes, threats by entry of new firms in the market and the degree of rivalry in the business environment the companies face. Cost leadership strategies are more preferred by Japanese managers unlike American managers. The managers in Japan and America are seen to interact well which promotes sharing of business ideas thus promoting success. There are effects of using competitive forces which are different based on the strategy a manager uses. Cost leadership strategy is preferred in a situation where high buyer and threats of the substitutes are seen to associate in preference for cost leadership which Japanese managers prefer unlike US managers. The article discusses effects of using competitive forces and the decisions strategies made by different managers.

How it related to one of topics above

This article is related to competitive forces model due to the fact that it emphasizes on the reason that makes managers to develop model. It asserts that due to the competitive environment that a company operates in, managers tend to create a model that helps them to cope with environment factors. Additionally, it helps them to make some competitive strategic decisions. This relates to competitive forces model as this model describes some of the factors that may influence the competitive position of a company in a market (Song, et al 669). These may include threats posed by new entrants and rivalry among the existing companies in the industry (Song, et al 669). Thus, the article is related to the topic, as they both tend to talk about same thing.

Why article or topic was chosen

The article was chosen since it shows how competitive forces are used in different companies globally and the effects of managers using them. The strategic choice made by different managers cause effects to the success of the company. Competitive strategies are important in a company since they ensure that managers utilize resources and identify new entries in to the market. This creates a health competitive business environment.

Conclusion with at least two questions

  1. What is the role of Competitive forces model in an organization?
  2. How does managers use Competitive forces model to address some of the external influences?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Song, Michael, Roger J. Calantone, and C. Anthony di Benedetto. "Competitive Forces And Strategic Choice Decisions: An Experimental Investigation In The United States And Japan." Strategic Management Journal 23.10 (2002): 969-978. Business Source Complete. Web. 2 May 2014.

 

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Market Planning Management and Control

 Introduction

Nike is a multinational company based in the United States that was established in 1964 by Bill Bower man and Phil Knight and it started as Blue Ribbon Sports, its headquarters are located at Oregon. The company deals with manufacturing, designing and selling of different types of sports materials, equipment and offers a variety of services. Nike’s earliest retail store started as a BRS retail store which was essentially located in Santa Monica about 1966. In the beginning of 1970's Blue Ribbon Sports went further and expanded beyond the shoe distribution production to huge shoe manufacturers. Around 1978, the company formally became Nike, Inc., a name that is attributed to the imagination of the company's first employee, Jeff Johnson (Katz, 2004, p.43). Nike Company manufactures and sells products under its own registered brand all over the world. The company maintains high levels on innovativeness to perfect its operations in order to remain on the competitive edge ahead of other competitors.

On the current world the sports industry is highly growing and this has attributed many investors to establish and invest on this sector thus this has increased competition in sportswear market. As a result, battle of the brands has started with companies competing with each other. For instance, in the United Kingdom, market research conducted by Mintel company estimates that the total worth of British sportswear is approximated to be £2.5billion. This research paper will illustrate on how Nike UK can effectively develop new product ideas so that it can remain on the competitive edge ahead of 2014 football World Cup, which will be held in Brazil and it will portray on different strategies that can be put in place to widen its market (Katz, 2004, p. 126).

Changes that have occurred in sportswear market in the last 10 years or more

In the last decade, sportswear market has enormously grown leading to a worldwide make and at the same time attracting more investors who have established several companies which deal with sportswear. For instance, companies like Nike.INC and Adidas are best known as the leaders in the sportswear market all over the world thus it is largely believed that sportswear market is so volatile as compared to other markers (Carbasho, 2010, p.193). On the same note, several changes are adversely taking place in the sports company and if they are not addressed effectively they largely affect sportswear market. The changes in sportswear market are attributed to be as a result of growth of global sporting industry. Nike promotes its products by venturing into sponsorship agreements with celebrity athletes, professional teams and also the athletic teams. Nike pays the performing athletes in most sport functions in order to utilize their goods and thus support and publicize their technology and skills (Crossan, et, al, 2010, p.145). The current growing trend as evidenced among the teenagers wearing sporting apparel is a good incentive to the growth of sportswear market.

PESTLE factors that may have affected changes in the market for sportswear

 

Pestle analysis is one of the tools that are useful in analyzing landscape in an organization, the features which impact on the organizations performance and operations so as to make the decisions and plans of the organization regardless of the futures uncertainties (PITTS, et al, 2013, p.182). Each letter in the pestle analysis stands for an element of the organizations external operating environment. This analysis generally tackles Political factors, Technological, Economic, Social, Legal and Environmental factors. Pestle analysis of Nike UK will help greatly as it guides the management of this company on key areas where more effort should be added in order to achieve established goals and objectives (Ranchhod, 2012 p.223).For an organization to gain a bigger picture view of the environment, one need to analyze the external and the internal framework. The pestle analysis provides the external perspective thus leading to an assessment of the opportunities and threats. The internal perspective can be determined by a review of both the strengths and weaknesses. (SWOT Analysis' 2013, p.149) The summing of an external view together with internal perception enable one to analyze the opportunities and threats from outside the organization and the strengths and weaknesses from inside the organization which is known as SWOT analysis which includes opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses in a given business.

Political factors

The government is responsible in creating economic guidelines and regulations which will increase the expansion of the business. Nike is a beneficiary of these regulations in the United States which provides them with an opportunity to modernize and sell their demanded products. This support by the United States government, the global competitiveness and the stable currency situation has helped a lot in the formation of the basis which may be sensitive to the expansion and development of the Nike Company (Ranchhod, 2012, P.248). Nike Company mostly trade in America and United Kingdom as its potential trade influence.

Economic factors

These factors have various impacts on how the entire company makes its own decision and how it operates its major businesses. In the example of many other organizations and also other companies, the greatest weakness in the economy would be the economic break down. The breakdown always has adverse and harmful effects on the expansion, development and advancement of Nike. The number of the consumers is decreasing downwards as a result of the current negative trade market in the United Kingdom. Asia too faces the economic decline thus contributing negatively to the Nikes sales since most of its products are being manufactured in Asia as well.

Environmental analysis

The study of the environment is not necessarily the inclusive of the overall environment of the globe but it includes all the internal and external factors affecting a business. The company has made sure that as it advances in technology it also puts measures on remaining environmental friendly by making sure that it avoids pollution by all means possible. Nike is a supporter of the green environment and thus does everything necessary so as to protect the environment. Nike is objected in fulfilling the expectations of the customers, creation of the environmental friendly atmosphere globally, motivating its employees and lastly being on the very top of the legislation. Nike displays its positive attitude in a study towards social and environmental responsibility on various parts of the company’s globally. Nike has proven to be an environment friendly company thus being counted among the responsible companies.

Society analysis

Since many people in the world are opting to keep fit in order to live longer, Nikes products such as shoes and clothing are in demand in order for people to join the fitness clubs. . Nike has been the most choice of people in purchasing sporting related product. Nike is yet to address the problem for example that of the situation of labor factory at various different locations of the products in India. (Carbasho, 2010, p.229). This has contributed to the negative effects as Nikes sales decreases. In addition, Nike is located in healthy environments which enable it to encourage safety of the environment. Currently, people are getting conscious of their body and health in general hence they have joined various fitness clubs in order to maintain their fitness and health status.

Legal factors

Nike is a multinational which has always maintained the business ethics. Nike has always remained friendly to the environment in accordance with the stated environmental laws in the United States and other countries. It has handled legal issues in accordance with the surrounding the legal issues have been operating in. Nike on entering a new country to increase its manufacture does so in accordance to the existing laws, regulation and practices of that particular company. Nike does anything in order to avoid the unnecessary problems thus whenever they have entered a new country they do so long after they have checked the local laws in detail. (HITT, et al 2013, p.231) In any case the laws are in extreme cases and are not in accordance with what Nike can offer Nike always stays out of trouble by respecting such regional laws. For example, the government policies with regard to foreign investment and permit business are different both in the developed and the under developed world. Nike has always paid attention to this concern. In case the government is too pleasant or strict with them, they always prefer to take one step at a time. Nike Company is involved in much corporate social responsibility in different countries (Wetherly & Otter, 2011, p.487).

Boston Consulting Group’s Product Portfolio Analysis

Boston Consulting Group’s Product Portfolio Analysis In order for Nike to be a successful company it is supposed to produce a collection of products with different growth rates and market shares. The portfolio analysis is a function of the balance between different cash flows (Carbasho, 2010, p.193). High growing products require growing cash inputs. Low growth products should thus generate excess and extra cash. There exist four rules in order to determine the cash flow of the products which Nike as a company should use. These laws include: margins and cash generated are a function of the market share, thus high margin and high market share go together and vice versa. This is well explained by the experience curve effect which is commonly observed. Another law is that growth requires cash inputs in order to finance the added assets. The added cash is required to hold share in the function of the growth rates. In addition, big market share must be earned or even bought which requires a supplementary increase in the investment. The company has impartial collection has cash flow that supply funds for the upcoming development and also has got stars whose large share and development has assurance of the future. Lastly is that there should be no product market to grow indefinitely and it has developed good strategies which address issues related to creating stronger Brand, financial turnarounds, producing diverse products, globalization, developing better marketing strategies competition, organization change, hiring people with right skills, public affairs, adapting latest technology and strategic planning (Lussier, Kimball & Lussier, 2009,p.100). On the BCG matrix index Nike is regarded to be a cash cow based on the economic index standards. Cash cows generate more revenue to the company making more huge profits therefore remaining important to be maintained in the company for success purposes. Dog brand products are the products that bring less profit and income to the company and are not worth in the company. Lower production costs enables less dogs thereby increasing more cash cows and in turn result to more profits and revenue for the company.

Ansoff’s Growth Matrix

The 4ps to explain this Ansoff growth matrix are discussed as follows. They include price, products, placements and promotion.

Products

These are the goods and services offered by the manufacturers to the consumers in exchange of cash. Products as part of the mixing in the market involves a number of factors which include quality, design of the products, features, packaging of the product, the brand name and the physical appearance of the product.

Price

This is the amount of cash various products and services amount to (Baker, 2011 p.189). The price is determined by the manufacturers and is affected by a number of factors which include the list price, available discounts and allowances, the time of payment and any credit services if necessary.

Placement

This is the method followed so as to distribute products until they reach the targeted markets. Placement as one of the market mix consists of transport, medium of distribution, exposure and the destination required.

Promotion

This is the process of informing and persuading customers to buy the available products. It is also one way of reminding customers on already existing goods and new goods. Promotion as one way of marketing mix includes adverts required, sales marketing and promotion.

Ansoffs growth matrix for Nike Company

The Ansoffs growth matrix is very crucial to Nike as the matrix helps the managers reflect on how their businesses can grow through the use of existing or new products or in existing new markets. Through the use of matrix the managers are able to evaluate the opposed degree of the risks being associated with moving their organization in a forward way. Ansoffs matrix provides several alternatives and marketing strategies which give an overview about the products and markets are new or existing and this attributes to enhancing new strategies that are made from the series of analysis that is done every time. However n every strategy there is an opposing level of risk that is being attributed and the Nike Company depicts the four strategies and this includes the following; Market penetration which is involves increasing market share within the already existing market segments (Baker, 2011, P.156). Through the selling more products and services to the established customers and also through finding new customers within the already existing markets they achieve their obligation. Thus the Nike Company is advised to entail on that in order to increase its sales all over the world since it’s the best strategy that should be entailed on. Ansoff growth matrix deals with product development, diversification and market segmentation. Advantages offered by a geo-demographic segmentation in approach to Nike Company

4 Ps of football market based on customer segmentation

The customer segmentation depends on four Ps namely price, product, promotion and placements which are discussed as indicated below.

Price

The price is determined by the manufacturers though customers decide whether the price is favorable for them or not. Price is determined by several factors including the economic conditions of the buyers and the allowances the company will give them.

Product

This involves what the manufacturer is offering and whether the product is favorable and acceptable to the consumer. Products depend on quality and the brand of that product.

Promotion

This process involves motivating customers so that they can buy the product. It involves giving out promotions and gifts as a way of attracting customers. Advertising the products also make customers aware of the products and services being offered.

Placement

This involves where to locate or find the products. It includes the location favorable and means of distribution of that product.

Shoes and other products from Nike Company are manufactured for both young and old people. The products favor both genders male and female. All ethnic groups are entitled to wear products from Nike Company. Nikes products cater for people’s income since the prices are economical and affordable by most people globally. There are products to cater for high class as well as low class people thus making them readily available. The family sizes do not matter. The products are made to fit in all types of families whether big or small sized companies. The products can fit people in any occupation but mostly favor the people in sporting industry. Sporting materials are readily available in all Nike’s stores and leading supermarkets globally. The products favor both educated and non educated people. They are manufactured regardless of the education standards of people. The products favor both married and single clients and are not based on marital status of clients. The products are based on geodemographic segmentation which caters for all types of clients inclusive of the family life cycle. Nike manufactures its products which are widely enjoyed by many customers regardless of the social class and family cycle but those who want to live in the modern lifestyles.

Market segmentation is important in making sure that a company has a good and inventive market strategy. The segmentation done can be based on the company’s marketing mix. For one to target a group with the intentions of it remaining a population, one must use the market segmentation. Market segmentation has a number of advantages which are much elaborated below.

Increase in profits

Segmentation contributes to increase in customer retention, brand recall, brand equity, competition, communications and increase in the profits obtainable. There are no negotiations in Nikes showrooms thus they target segments which have no need or for bargaining and negotiations. By doing these bikes profits are always so high. The profits increase yearly as a result of this strategy of not providing any room for bargaining.

Company focus

Segmentation is a successful method to increase the focus of a company on the market segments. Enhanced returns together with the better focus. Nike should thus change its focus for better returns thus for it to increase its focus and profitability, it should base its strategy totally on a new segment. This will increase its sales and improve its image since it is well known as a multinational company.

Market expansion

Expansion is immediately possible with geographic segmentation. The Nike company can simply expand to a nearby territory if it basis its market strategy on the basis of geography. (Dawes, 2009, p.243) If the targeted customers are based on their demography then comparable goods can be extended and thus segmentation plays an important role in expansion. In order for Nike to expand in a territory it has to know the segment of the customers it will be meeting and the various strategies of attracting more customers. Advertising can greatly improve the sales of Nike as a great company.

Better communication

The company’s communication strategy needs to be spot on for its target market thus segmentation goes hand in hand with the target market. Communication is possible with knowing the target market. Good communication strategies should be encouraged in order to attract more customers.

Increase in competitiveness

Market segment greatly increases with an increase in the number of competitors. If Nike is focusing on youngsters then its brand and equity with the youngsters will be high. The market might increase and the chances of the new competitor entering will be low. Thus market segmentation will increase the competitiveness of the Nike Company from a holistic view. Thus competition is highly important if the market is to be maintained in a positive direction.

Retention of customers

Nike should use necessary strategies for it to retain its customers for example offering special offers and discounts regularly .Through use of segmentation, customer retention is encouraged throughout the life of a customer. Nike should make sure it retains its customers.

Conclusion

From the above it is clearly seen that Nike is a growing multinational company with its products being preferred the most by a large number of people. It is important to conclude that Nike is one of the largest suppliers of athletic shoes and clothing in the world and also a main manufacturer of sports equipment. Nike promotes its products by venturing into sponsorship agreements with celebrity athletes, professional teams and also the athletic teams. Nike pays the performing athletes in most sport functions in order to utilize their goods and thus support and publicize their technology and skills.

 

References

Bachmeier, K. 2009. Analysis of marketing strategies used by PepsiCo based on Ansoff's theory.             München, GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Baker, R 2011, 'Adidas hopes Olympics will see it overtake Nike in UK', Marketing Week (01419285), 34, 22, p. 6, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 23 February 2014.

Carbasho, T. 2010. Nike. Santa Barbara, Calif, Greenwood.

Crossan, M. M., Gandz, J., Seijts, G. H., & Stephenson, C. 2010. Cross-enterprise leadership business leadership for the twenty-first century. Mississauga, Ont, Jossey-Bass.

Davis, J. 2010. Competitive success: how branding adds value. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K., John Wiley.

Dawes, J 2009, 'Brand loyalty in the UK sportswear market', International Journal Of Market Research, 51, 4, pp. 449-463, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 23 February 2014

Gessinger, G. H. 2009. Materials and innovative product development using common sense Burlington, MA, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Hawkins, D. I., Best, R. J., & Coney, K. A. 2009. Consumer behavior: implications for marketing strategy. Chicago, Irwin.

Katz, D. R. 2004. Just do it: the Nike spirit in the corporate world. Holbrook, Mass, Adams Pub.

Kotler, P., Dholakia, R. R., Anwar, S. F., & Hasan, K. 2009. Marketing practices  in developing economy: cases from South Asia. New Delhi, PHI Learning Private Ltd

Lussier, R. N., Kimball, D. C., & Lussier, R. N. 2009. Applied sport management skills. Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics.

Mooij, M. K. D., & Mooij, M. K. D. 2011. Consumer behavior and culture: consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks, SAGE Publications.

Motiwala, A. 2008. The dictionary of marketing. Guajarat, India, IKON Marketing Consultants.

Ranchhod, A. 2012.CIM Coursebook 05/06 Strategic Marketing in Practice. Routledge, 2012

Shimp, T. A. 2013. Advertising, promotion & supplemental aspects of integrated marketing             communications. Mason, Ohio [u.a.], Thomson/South-Western.

Sombart, W., & Klausner, S. Z. 2010. The Jews and modern capitalism. New Brunswick, Transaction Books.

Wetherly, P., & Otter, D. 2011. The business environment: themes and issues. Oxford, Oxford

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 Employee Relations and Trade Unions

Introduction

            Employees’ relations can be described as the various processes laid down by a given company in order to make sure that there is good working environment for employees. Employees must be committed to their jobs. Employers should also respect rights of employees. This is done in order to avoid conflicts in the organizations as a way of promoting unity and good interaction between employees and employers. There are initiates used in order to promote good management standards in various organizations. There are many employees relations initiates that have come up currently especially in prominent organizations based in the UK. The human resource management department has come up with use of two perspectives in employees’ relations as away of promoting good working conditions for both employees and their employers. The two perspectives include unitary and pluralist perspectives which are of use in management of employee relations.

Task 1

Explain what is meant by the unitary and pluralistic perspectives taken in regard to employee relations?

Unitary perspective is an example of an employee relation skill. According to the unitary theory, the overall management and authority comes from the human resource management team. There are no oppositions who give employees authority or guidelines on how to perform their duties. The managers have the duty of controlling employees and making sure that employees perform their duties accordingly. The managers have a duty of giving guidelines to employees and showing them how to perform the duties in diligent and successful manners as a way of maintaining success in that organization (Harrison & Hoek, 2007, p.234). In this perspective the managers and employees must work together by avoiding disagreement which causes failure in the organization. Employees and employers work together in order to achieve the set goals and objectives in that organization. This encourages unity in the organization resulting to success in that particular business. Conflicts in the organization are avoided in this perspective. Conflicts results to failure of the business and must be avoided by employees and employers.

Advantages and disadvantages of unitary perspective in organizations

Unitary perspective has a key advantage in that it promotes unity between employees and their employers. The views and decisions of employees are respected before the employers make a complete conclusion on matters affecting the organization. This makes sure that respect between employers and employee is maintained at all times. Employees are the key factors in a given organization and should always be motivated which enable them remain committed in their work since they are key stakeholders in organizations (Singh & Kumar, 2011, p.12). Managers are also the key leaders in the organization. They should portray good leadership skills and qualities to enhance good employee relation. This will reduce the participation of trade unions in matters relating employee relations in various organizations. Employees and employers work in order to achieve common objectives. Unitary perspective is best used in individual programs instead of trade unions. Thus trade unions are not encouraged in this type of perspective if success is to be maintained in the organizations (Nickson, 2007, p.122).

The main disadvantage experienced in unitary perspective is the fact that it assumes the issue that there is power difference between employees and employers. This difference leads to disagreements in organizations as employers perceive themselves superior than an employee which is true. This unitary theory shows that employees submit to decisions made by managers most times unquestioned since they perceive themselves as minors while the managers are the superiors. In unitary theory conflicts are regarded as harmful to the organizations and are viewed as dangerous in the organizations. Some conflicts in the organizations are useful to enhance growth and development in organizations (Nickson, 2007, p.124). There are different conflicts and some are positive and useful in organizations. For example conflict A is useful in making employees effective and conflict C is useful in promoting team work in organizations. In addition the unitary theory does not outline how human resource management should divide given roles and responsibilities which can at last cause more conflicts. It does not cater for interests of the whole organization but focuses only on the individual conflicts.

Pluralistic perspectives

According to the pluralistic theory, given working environments consist of different workers of different beliefs, culture, skills, attitudes and knowledge. Unlike in unitary theory, pluralistic theory maintains that opposing leadership must be present in a given working environment. Conflicts must be present since interests of people are diverse and some of them are actually helpful to the organization and can even be restricted. Managers are supposed to control interests of people in the organization (Farnham & Farnham, 2010, p.156). This theory encourages trade unions which enables employee make right and informed decisions and thus managers should not violate their rights. Trade unions unlike in unitary theory are encouraged to cater for welfare of employees. The process of collective bargaining according to this theory maintains stability of the employee relation. Both managers and employees should agree and solve conflicts if success is to be maintained in organizations.

Advantages and disadvantages of pluralistic theory

This theory unlike unitary theory shows how trade unions can cater for employees and organizations interests. A section of the trade unions is used to manage conflicts thus equality and justice can be maintained in organizations. Unlike in unitary theory, conflicts in this theory are handled appropriately through involving both employees and employers in organizations (Katz et al 2014, p.16). This theory provides for strategies on how to solve conflicts and comes up with solutions which maintain good employee relation in organizations. The human resource department has the role of identifying conflicts and coming up with effective methods of controlling and handling conflicts which eventually promotes effective employees relation. The major disadvantage of this theory is the fact that though guidelines and policies on how to solve conflicts are provided; the guidelines cannot be applied in different organizations. Collective bargaining process should always remain stable.

What are the ‘key’ ingredients of effective collective bargaining arrangements?

Collective bargaining is a skill used in negotiation processes between employees and employers. Trade unions are the key factors involved in process of collective bargaining. Interests of the employees are treated first in the process of collective bargaining. The process of negotiation is regarded different from the process of collective bargaining (Hsieh et al 2012, p.36). The conditions of the employment must be followed where employees rights must be followed as per given negotiation processes. Trade unions as the key ingredients of collective bargaining process make sure that employees enjoy healthy and protected working environments and that their interests are maintained at all times. Collective bargaining process ensures that employees as the key stakeholders in organizations live in improved life conditions. In collective bargaining trade unions sell the conditions for which employees are to be subjected to and thus employers and managers bargain with trade unions for their interests to be also considered. After the process of bargaining a universal agreement is reached which is referred to as collective agreement which is followed by employers and managers.

Employees and employers must enhance good relation thereby encouraging the issue of collective bargaining. For an effective employee relation to be maintained the process of collective bargaining should always remain stable and collective agreements followed. The government is also involved in the process of collective bargaining. This is a well discussed issue which has captured the government to come in and share its views on employee relations (Burris, 2012, p.851). There are various laws and policies given by the government on how to maintain stable working environments for both employees and employers. The trade unions as the key compositions in the process of collective bargaining have improved the working conditions for various employees thereby attracting the government to join in.

Partnership, engagement, employee voice are some of the more contemporary attempts to promote effective employee relations in an organization. Discuss the merits / demerits of these approaches and explain the reasons why these approaches have emerged.

Employees and employers must stick to the commitments and agreement involved during these approaches. The approaches enhance and maintain healthy competition for organizations therefore enhancing success especially when using the partnership approach. High and qualified staffs are acquired through use of these approaches thereby encouraging more skills and knowledge in the organizations (Godard & Frege, 2013, p.66). Many organizations employ these approaches as one way of avoiding conflicts therefore maintaining effective employee relations. The procession of decision making is made possible by using the partnership approach which means that both employees and employers share ideas until comprehensive and suitable decisions for organizations are made. The organization benefits from partnership approach especially with trade unions since the organization gets ideas and learns policies enacted by governments. This will reduce conflicts in various organizations and thus promote good interaction and communication strategy within the business environment. The voice of employees approach is advantageous since employees are able to lay out their complaints and problems in the right time and place. Trade unions in most cases air out the grievances of employees and give guidelines to employers on how to maintain good working environments for both employers and employees (Godard & Frege, 2013, p.66). Organizations benefit from employees voice approach since they are able to know problems of employees in time and look for solutions through the process of collective bargaining. Engaging as an approach is of benefit to organizations. Many employees are engaged in key decision making processes in the organizations. This motivates employees and maintains good employees-employer relationships thereby encouraging and promoting success (Godard & Frege, 2013, p.66).

Disadvantages are also seen in use of the partnership, engagement and employee voice approaches. Disadvantages also arise when using these approaches. Trade unions do not consider the interests of businesses but mostly are interested in employee interests which cause disadvantages to employers. It is expensive to partner with trade unions as they charge high premiums from employers (Timming, 2012 p.23). Most conflicts are related to the approach of partnership since employers will consider their views and interests first before considering interests of employees. Opinions may differ when partnering thus causing more disagreements in the businesses instead of promoting harmony. Interests of one partner cannot be considered when the other partner is absent thus it is not convenient approach since success of one partner can be hindered by the other. This causes non effective employees relation which can lead to failure of the business. Voice employees approach also causes harmful effects to the organization if used inappropriately. Trade unions at times cause disadvantages to organizations especially when interests of employers are totally ignored. Organizations belong to employers and thus their interests must come first which trade unions seem to overlook (Wilkinson & Fay, 2011, p.65). Engagement approach is disadvantageous when dealing with all employees in organizations because the views and ideas are many thus employers are forced to make their own decisions instead of considering many different opinions and ideas. Many ideas and opinions can lead to confusion thus causing ineffective employees relation. This can lead to failure of organizations and should be avoided.

Task 2

Using your understanding of dispute resolution processes research an organization with which you are familiar and evaluate their approach to handling disciplinary issues.

Tesco Company is one of the largest retail markets based in the United Kingdom. The report from the trade union complained that Tesco Company does not give equal salaries to its employees which. This made the company face criticism from the independent union of retail workers. The union suggested that cashiers in that company receive little salaries as compared to other cashiers of other companies. The company director argued that the cashiers are not efficient and qualified in order to receive better salaries which are not a valid excuse. Thus during the year 2010 the company received various complains from the given union which criticized it. Tesco has had several cases of dismissing its employees without earlier notice which makes it face trouble with the given trade unions (Laud, 2014, p.25).

Tesco is seen to solve these duties by following policies of different trade associations. For example in the case of low salaries for cashiers Tesco management teams says that the policies of Hungarian Trade Association suggests that cashiers are not among the group of qualified labor group. When solving the disputes in Tesco company the management employees some guidelines. First it handles the dispute quickly. The company takes quick action in making sure that the given problem is solved by the right people considering the right time thus. Time saves the dispute from being bigger. Secondly, the disputes are solved in a fair and just manner. This is done by listening to both views of the disputing parties and coming up with a valid conclusion and decision. Tesco uses this guideline thus solving the disputes in time and accordingly. In addition, Tesco solves its disputes in a confidential manner. This makes sure that all the rights of the given parties are not violated and that matters are handled responsibly. For example in the dispute that Tesco was involved in to suggesting that it dismisses people without any prior notice (Hayter, 2011, p.136). Tesco handled the dispute responsibly by showing the valid reasons of taking such a huge step. This shows that Tesco employs good dispute solving measures which enables it to remain successful.

Lastly, Tesco makes sure that the procedure followed when solving the disputes remains understandable and transparent. This makes Tesco to gain trust from the public, its employees and the government. This maintains and promotes good image to Tesco thus making its dispute solving process easy, transparent and reliable. Conflicts which take place between employees and employers in the company are solved at the right time as a way of maintaining good interaction in the company. In order to maintain effective employee relation it is therefore important that companies follow the correct methods of solving disputes (Hayter, 2011, p.136). Tesco gives room for employees to air out their grievances thus enabling it solve those problems at the right time since employees are given freedom to give complaints. This enables the company remain successful.

Conclusions

From the above discussion it is true to say that employee relations should be maintained. Through participation of the trade unions, the interests of the organization and managers can be overlooked since pluralistic theory is concerned with the interests of employees thereby making the collective bargaining process unbalanced. In order to manage the employee relation in a justice manner, the collective bargaining process should always remain stable. Employees tend to follow the rules given to them by managers even though they are oppressive. The human resource department is advocating for the use of unitary and pluralistic perspectives as a way of promoting good relationships in the working places which will result to success of the organization. The appropriate methods of solving disputes should be put in place thereby making organizations successful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Burris, Er 2012, 'The Risks And Rewards Of Speaking Up: Managerial Responses To Employee Voice', Academy Of Management Journal, 55, 4, pp. 851-875, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2014        

Farnham, D., & Farnham, D. (2010). Human resource management in context: strategy, insights and solutions. London, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Godard, J, & Frege, C 2013, 'Labor Unions, Alternative Forms Of Representation, And The Exercise Of Authority Relations In U.S. WORKPLACES', Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 66, 1, pp. 142-168, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2014.

Harrison, a., & Hoek, r. i. v. 2007. Logistics management and strategy. Harlow, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Hayter, S. 2011. The Role of Collective Bargaining in the Global Economy Negotiating for Social Justice. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Pub. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=714168.  

Hsieh, J, Rai, A, Petter, S, & Ting, Z 2012, 'Impact Of User Satisfaction With Mandated Crm Use On Employee Service Quality', MIS Quarterly, 36, 4, pp. 1065-A3, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2014.  

Katz, Hc 2013, 'Is U. S. Public Sector Labor Relations In The Midst Of A Transformation?’ Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 66, 5, pp. 1031-1046, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2014.  

Laud, J 2014, 'Better Strategic Planning Through Employee Engagement', Credit Union Times, 25, 2, p. 12, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2014.

Nickson, D. 2007. Human resource management for the hospitality and tourism industries.             Amersterdam, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Singh, P. N., & Kumar, N. 2011. Employee relations management. New Delhi, Pearson Education South Asia. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/?fpi=9788131726013

Timming, AR 2012, 'Tracing the effects of employee involvement and participation on trust in managers: an analysis of covariance structures', International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 23, 15, pp. 3243-3257, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost,         viewed 5 April 2014.  

Wilkinson, A, & Fay, C 2011, 'New times for employee voice?', Human Resource Management, 50, 1, pp. 65-74, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2014.

 

 

 

 

 

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  Public Relations

Introduction

Public relations can be defined as the entire way organizations and individuals communicate with publics and media in general. In simple terms, it refers to the practice of managing and directing the spread of useful information between an individual or a company and the public. It may include an organization obtaining exposure to their customers using topics that are related to public interest and news items that does not need any form of direct payment. Normally, the aim or the focus of public relation of a company frequently is to convince the public, investors, employees, and other stakeholders to preserve a certain summit about it, its leadership, products, or political decisions that are made within the entire company. Common activities that are carried out include speaking at various conferences, working with the media and employee communication. Most often, a public relations specialist converse with his or her target audience directly through media with a focus of creating and maintaining a good reputation and strong relationship with entire audience. Public relations specialist normally uses newsletters, public appearances and they can utilize the World Wide Web. This paper will clearly address how human and labor rights are Public relations issues for an organization

Which aspects within the definitions of public relations support this statement?

There are certain aspects within the definition of public relations that shows that human and labor rights are not only industrial relations issues but also the Public relations issues for an organization (Botha, 2007). For instance, from public relations definitions, it can be seen that it sometimes deals with employees and leadership issues (Yaverbaum, Bly, Benun & Kirshenbaum, 2011). This means that all complaints that are brought by the entire employees will be challenges to public relations within an organization. In addition, Public relations concern different ways by which an organization gets exposed to its entire customers using topics that are related to public interest and news items that does not need any form of direct payment (Duhé, 2007). Therefore, public relation’s definition have various aspect that makes human and labor rights to be identified as the major problems of public relations within an organization.

Who would you identify as key publics with this topic? How would you classify these publics? Give reasons for your answer.

The key publics in this topic are the organizations. Organizations include employees, employers and the management boards. Labour rights in an organization should not be violated as both employees and employers should work in an organization where rights are respected. The rights include good salaries for employees, convenient working environments and benefits the employees get after working in that particular organization (Bowen et al 2010). Labour rights include employees being involved in decision making processes in that particular organization. Key publics should therefore respect the labour rights which should be enjoyed by different workers. There are different activists to fight for the rights of different workers in various organizations. Human and labour rights are mainly viewed as public relations rather than industrial relations since they enhance good relationship between various employees and employers in the organizations. Thus, those key publics like the employees and employers should perform their duties well as they enjoy their different rights in their places of work. The labour rights are classified according to the positions various people hold in the organizations. The rights of each individual depend on the union involved in making those rights (Clear, &Weidman, 2002). Various trade unions are formed in order to make sure that labour rights are not violated in the public relation department. Activists of the labour rights are more concerned with organizations where rights of the workers are violated. They urge such organization to respect the workers rights where they can charge them for violating such rights. It is evident that the key publics are different organizations where employees and employers work Collins, 2012).

Please assess the topic and its ethical implications. Who do you think would be most affected by ethical issues and why?

Labour and human rights are a concern to most industries and organizations. There are different working conditions and ethics which must be followed in various work places. There are also national policies regarding the way organizations should handle employees. The ethics suggest that employees should be subjected to work in stable conditions which are free from environmental pollution (Gilliland et al 2007). The various human and labour rights must not be violated and should be respected by all staffs in various organizations. Organizations and manufacturers according to labour and human rights must ensure that the products they produce maintain the standards required and are of high quality. Thus manufacturers are much subjected to the ethical issues as compared to employees and customers. Manufactures should ensure that they produce quality and standard products in line with the ethical policies in various countries. Employees should give quality pay to employees and should also provide pay during overtime hours as a way of promoting the required ethical guidelines (Morais, 2011).

           Public relations ensure that communication flows easily from employers to employees. It also ensures that information reaches required destination who are consumers in the required time and feed back taken back to the producer. It is therefore true to say that labour rights are not just industrial issues but are public relations issues in various organizations. According to the public relations employers should enhance good communication and interaction strategy amongst the workers in that organization as away to enhance unity. Public relation department ensures that rights of employees are followed as way of enhancing motivation to the employees (Muhr, et al 2010). Thus the department of public relations ensures that the correct working ethics are followed and that labour rights are not violated in that organization. This enhances success in different organizations.

The most affected by ethical issues are mainly employees and employers. Employers must follow the guidelines of the labour rights. Employers must follow the required working standards and ethics as stated by the national laws however expensive they are. They must provide good working hours for employees as well as good salaries even if the economy declines. The public relation department makes sure that those rights are not violated and that information runs strategically in the whole organization. Manufacturers are forced to produce only those products which meet the required standard by the law (Muhr, et al 2010). They are only supposed to manufacture products that are friendly to the environment according to the environmental laws which is at times difficult. Environmental guidelines should be included and followed by manufacturers failure to which negative consequences may follow which will cause an impact to the organization. Employees are affected by the various working ethics. Employees must work together by putting their differences aside to enhance success of the organization. The public relation department ensures that employees work hard to contribute to success of the organization. Employees hold various responsibilities in the organizations which should flow well. The correct work ethics should be followed in a correct way in order to ensure success (Trevino & Weaver, 2003).

In your research, you will discover a range of public relations activities conducted by different organisations concerning the issue of human and labour rights. Summarise two examples of positive public relations activity and two examples of negative public relations activity involving the topic. How effective do you think these activities have been to influence target publics?

Various activities of public relations that are conducted sometimes tend to be beneficial to organizations. This is due to the fact that one of the major key points of public relations is to help in establishing credibility for a product, company image in the minds of targeted customer groups (Gregory, 2010). This is enhanced by capitalizing on the influence of a third-party which may be the press (Gregory, 2010). Many researches show that ranges of public relations that are conducted by various organizations are mainly concerned with the issue of human and labor rights. This is because there is an increased argument of violations of human rights and their wages for their effort. Additionally, employees claims that their payments are decreasing every day because of the failure of labour relations. This shows that public relation is playing a critical role of remedying these situations where an employee’s rights are violated. It is the policy of public relations to grant all employees freedom of association and rights to choose their own working hours (Watson& Noble, 2007). One of positive public relations activity that helps to solve the issue of human and labour rights that most of the organizations are facing is that it equips employees right to choose their working hours and wages that will please them. The second positive activity of public relations is that it increases employee responsiveness and understanding of the company’s goals, initiatives and policies (Gregory, 2010). It also develops an efficient employee-communications program that acts as useful business tool for enhancing organization’s image with the entire public (Kitchen, 1999). These activities help in solving and protecting human and labor rights of employees.

In case of negative public relation activities, public relation specialist always concentrate on the ruining the reputation of business conflicts (Du, 2000). One of the negative activities of public is their way of advertising. While they are advertising, they tend to give qualities that the entire products do not present. While trying to praise company’s profile they tend to talk of something that the company does not offer. For instance, they can exaggerate on the salary that the entire company is giving it workers. However, this may not be true as they are trying to advertise a certain company. This in advance can violate human and labor rights. These activities can influence the target public, as their negative activity will mislead them.

Conclusion

For a couple of years, there has been a debate abut how various issues that affect Public relations which are identified as one of the major issues that affect an organization from the above discussion. This means that Human and labor rights are not only the industrial relations issues but they are Public relations issues for an organization. Employees are affected by the various working ethics which are in public relation department. Employees must work together by putting their differences aside to enhance success of the organization. The public relation department ensures that employees work hard to contribute to success of the organization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Botha, D. (2007). Public relations: Fresh perspectives. Cape Town: Pearson/Prentice Hall South   Africa.

Bowen, S. A., Rawlins, B., & Martin, T. R. (2010). An overview of the public relations function. New York: Business Expert Press.

Clear, A., & Weideman, L. (2002). Dynamics of public relations and journalism: A practical guide for media studies. Lansdowne: Juta.

Collins, D. (2012). Business ethics. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Du, P. D. F. (2000). Introduction to public relations and advertising. Lansdowne: Juta.

Duhé, S. C. (2007). New media and public relations. New York [u.a.: Lang.

Gilliland, S., Steiner, D., & Skarlicki, D. (2007). Managing social and ethical issues in organizations. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Pub. Inc.

Gregory, A. (2010). Planning and managing public relations campaigns: A strategic approach. London: Kogan Page.

Kitchen, P. J. (1999). Public relations: Principles and practice. London [u.a.: International Thomson Business Press.

Morais, . C. G. J. (2011). Ethical issues and social dilemmas in knowledge management: Organizational innovation. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Muhr, S. L., Sorensen, B. M., & Vallentin, S. (2010). Ethics and Organizational Practice: Questioning the Moral Foundations of Management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub.

Trevino, L. K., & Weaver, G. R. (2003). Managing ethics in business organizations: Social scientific perspectives. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Business Books.

Watson, T., & Noble, P. (2007). Evaluating public relations: A best practice guide to public relations planning, research & evaluation. London: Kogan Page.

Yaverbaum, E., Bly, R. W., Benun, I., & Kirshenbaum, R. (2011). Public Relations For Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Strategic audit of Best Buy Company

Natural physical environment on sustainability issues

Best Buy Corporation which has its headquarters at Richfield is a company dealing with sale of electronics. Its mission is to make customers enjoy the latest technology. It is more concerned with its customers and employees and does everything in support of the employees. It is easily reached by its customers as it provides online retail services. Financial crisis’s has contributed negative impacts to the company globally this resulting to a drop of sales in Best Buy. The net income in best buy has been reported to decline as a result of higher prices currently caused by unstable economic conditions. The prices of products from the electronic industry have been forced to go down as a result of many competitors and unstable conditions. The lower prices have led to low incomes thus affecting the company’s profitability. Climate and especially global warming has affected the running of the businesses where storms experienced causes damages to the company’s buildings and property. Environmental organizations have complained and advised Best Buy to remain environment friendly in carrying out its businesses as well as its competitors. The issue of climate is global issues where countries are supposed to treat the environment as it deserves for the global temperatures to remain normal.

Societal environment

Economic factors

The best buy company receives income and funding from different parts of the world. It has suffered debt problems which make its income low thus minimizing its profits. The current technological and economic decline has contributed to low incomes to the company. This becomes a great concern to all electronic industries since they suffer loses instead of huge profits.

Technological factors

These have contributed to positive and negative impacts in the income of the electronic industry. The use of current technology has increased the sales of best buy company as well as other retailers through use of internet and online services but there are challenges in use of modern technology which lead to future threats in the retail electronic industry.

Political legal factors

Best buy has respected the regulation and laws of the countries it has traded in as well as other electronics retailers. It is well managed by managers who bring positive impacts in to the retail market. The managers have always made the right strategic moves thereby making the company successful. The challenges are there due to the problem of economic downfalls but the management has always dealt with this problems.

Social cultural factors

The employees and customers have been treated right in this best buy electronic retail where it gives promotions to its customers which affect it futures success and enhances its growth as a result of more customers. Promotions will help in outdoing its key competitors who include Wal-Mart Company and RadioShack Corporation.

Task environment

Competition is the key theme in the retail electronic market. The forces of competition are high since there are a number of competitors in the field of electronic. The customers are given room for bargaining as a way of promoting them. There exists rivalry among the competitors where Wal-Mart is accused of selling products at very low prices which affects the other retailers in the market. The government is in support of retail market though taxes are charged at high rates which cause negative impacts to the market. The local communities are in support of retail market though the customer behavior changes from time to time which cause future threats.

Summary of external factors

Technological factors as well as economic factors will lead to good opportunities for the company as well as threats to the company. Improving the technology is a key factor in success of a business as well as improving the working environment of the employees. Lowering the price will attract more customers which will improve the economic returns of the Best Buy as well as other retail electronic globally.

 

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