## OUTLIERS

Questions We Can Answer For you

For this discussion, you will assess the use of various support decision tools and explain why outliers are sometimes called influential observations. Discuss what could happen to the slope of a regression of Y versus a single X when an outlier is included versus when it is not included. Will this necessarily happen when a point is an outlier? You are required to give at least two examples in your response.

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## History of Mathematics

History of Mathematics

Introduction

Teachers use mathematical history to teach students as a method of enhancing their mathematical skills. Mathematics is applied in all situations of life. The history of applying and solving quadratic equations is used by teachers as a method of adding knowledge to the students. Teachers should ensure that students learn the mathematics history and apply it in solving mathematical equations. Different cultures have developed their mathematical skills differently. History of mathematics from an international point of view started in Egypt and Babylonia before making its way to Greece. Greek and Indian mathematics was translated to Arabic language. The rest of the mathematics was translated in to Latin before being westernized by Europeans. Mathematics in China, Japan, and south India was improved but has no impact on the international mathematics started by Egyptians. Mathematics has been developed in to improved logical operations which students are capable of learning globally.

Using mathematics in daily Life to progress Student education

Mathematics should be prepared by teachers to improve students’ knowledge. Motivation is necessary as a way to ensure students’ mathematical skills are improved (Davi et al, 2002). Strategies should be enhanced and students being made aware of different logical calculations and operations. Mathematics is used in all career opportunities. It is useful in the study of different fields like: medicine, law, environmental studies, politics, cultural opportunities and economics (Mann, 2011). Almost all careers are successful through application of mathematical knowledge, skills, ideas and abilities. Mathematics is different from science since it applies logical operations and ability unlike science which is based on scientific discoveries, theories and capabilities. However, mathematics and science are related since they share certain similar theories. Mathematics was in the past used for scientific purposes thereby bringing positive impacts to the society (Davi et al, 2002). Mathematics is still used today by the society for similar purposes. Technical courses and careers require mathematics and scientific ability and knowledge. The contextual scheme is used by various mathematicians to describe the history, uses and importance of mathematics which faces criticisms from some people (Mann, 2011). Mathematics has not developed much from the one used in the past. Today’s mathematics uses the contextual approach in dealing with technical skills. Mathematicians have a challenge of providing a clear history of mathematics since mathematics existed long before history itself. Future mathematicians have a role to develop mathematics and protect the history of mathematics for future generation to learn. Mathematicians should improve the approaches and advance them as a way to ensure mathematical knowledge remains intact (Mann, 2011).

Technical approaches of mathematics should be encouraged. Technical approaches of modern mathematics work together with those of historical mathematics. Mathematics history should not disregard the mathematics concepts including the social, economic and political aspects. The process of undertaking and creating mathematics should be highly investigated since mathematics is useful in all careers (Roman, 2004). Sources and documentaries of mathematics should be highly analyzed and investigated and controversies between different sources should be absent. Mathematics should be arranged in a way that the different developments follow each other in a systematic way in order to avoid confusion and controversies. Mathematical ideas are attributed to the mathematicians who came up with the discovery and recorded as a documentary. The mathematical discoveries by different mathematicians are linked to each other. This is a simple way of keeping record in a systematic manner until the relations reach the people who apply the mathematical theories in their life. The links do not portray a clear picture of how events took place till they reach to the present people (Roman, 2004).

The mathematical path is assumed as being natural since the events are interconnected in a natural manner until they reach the people. The modern mathematics is linked to the past. Present mathematical ideas are developments of the past ideas. The connection is not specially done by historians but through logical links which contribute to progressive growth and development of mathematics (Roman, 2004). Logical connection is present in deriving modern mathematical formulas. Modern mathematicians portray the subject as an activity and do not consider it as history. Mathematics is a continuous process where modern mathematics borrows ideas and concepts from the past mathematics. The purpose, objectives and ideas of mathematics enhances people think better in case of other areas of knowledge application (Roman, 2004).

Historical data concerning mathematics enables people gain knowledge in terms of past ideas and concepts. Questions can be raised from the past mathematics which will be useful to improve modern mathematics. Mathematics is closely related not only to science but to philosophy as well. Past of mathematics from the analysis should not be assumed to be the mathematics view during the past (Davi et al, 2002). Mathematics therefore is viewed as combination of many different ideas and discoveries. These discoveries keep on renewing and developing in to more complex logical operations. The developments have kept on developing since the nineteenth century where presently mathematicians are present unlike in the past where they were not considered. Mathematics was and is associated with different fields such as hydrology studies, pictorial studies and mechanical studies among many other requiring mathematical knowledge applications (Davi et al, 2002). Mathematicians are considered as experts in that field from the nineteenth century. Mathematicians viewed mathematics as an activity which requires application of the mind and brains especially. Mathematical ideas require clear understanding for one to solve those logical operations. Mathematics done in the past should guide the present operations done. Philosophical views should not be followed and instead past mathematical views should be associated with modern mathematics (Davi et al, 2002). Mathematical ideas and discoveries are initiated by people who do not use mathematical instruments. Practical mathematics is necessary to students undertaking different courses unlike theoretical mathematics which involve formulas applied in life. Practical mathematics should be encouraged since it is a form of professional mathematics (Davi et al, 2002). Mathematics should develop with different practices undertaken to support the mathematical knowledge and students learning.

Many articles assert that people use math skills in their day-to-day activities without even realizing. This is because in every chore that an individual tend to do everyday consists of Math. For example, many people start their day with a math questions. This is where an individual ask him or herself how long will he or she take to sleep (Kalchman, 2011). A good example is when a student is making his or her timetable. Sometimes they ask themselves many questions that are related to mathematics. For instance, a student can ask himself, “how many minutes should I sleep and make to be at school on time? (Kalchman, 2011)”.While looking at the question it is using some mathematics, for instance, calculation of time. From this perspective, it can be seen that people are widely using math without even recognizing it as they plan for their day-to-day activities. It is believed that any math that student does in everyday life assignment can be of great help to them. This is because it helps to make the student to be bolder and competence when it comes to Mathematics. Various students have claimed that Math in Everyday Life (MIEL) is relevant as it has a positive impact to their learning (Kalchman, 2011). This is because it improves their mathematical skills and capabilities. In addition, it improves their overall boldness especially when carry out mathematics assignment. It also improves their overall confidence when communicating things that are related to mathematics. It can also be in a position to improve their overall confidence especially when taking tests that involves mathematics. It is believed that through Math in Everyday life (MIEL) student can be in a position to develop the individual student’s ability to appreciate and recognize about Mathematics even outside their entire classroom(Kalchman, 2011). In addition, through Math in Everyday life (MIEL), student can be in a position to know how to apply every concepts of Mathematics that can be used outside the class. The fact that Math in Everyday life (MIEL) can equip a student with various skills, it is essential for them to be able to recognize various concepts of Mathematics (Kalchman, 2011). This is because it makes the students to be more competent and independent. This in advance helps student to succeed in their academics.

From this point of view, it can be seen that students can be in a position to solve mathematics without paper, pencils or even calculators (Kalchman, 2011). This is because they carry out math in their day-to-day activities without even realizing. Some articles assert that student feel good due to the impact of MIEL on Mathematics which is practiced in school and outside the school (Kalchman, 2011). Some student feels that MIEL give them an advantage over other students most often when it come to class work and testing. However, they feel that it is an extra homework. When investing some of the positive of Math in Everyday life (MIEL) assignment, it can be seen that it helps the student to become successful in mathematics-related works outside school (Kalchman, 2011). Many students argue that Math in Everyday life (MIEL) assignment is better as it gives them various advantages. For instance, they can be in a position to know more and use math more rather than just doing it for an hour every day (Kalchman, 2011).

Conclusion

From this point of view, it is clearly evidenced that history of mathematics is useful to students and present mathematicians in developing new mathematical discoveries. Mathematics improves students’ overall confidence when communicating things that are related to mathematics. It can also be in a position to advance their overall confidence especially when taking tests that involves application of mathematics. Mathematics is viewed as grouping of many different ideas and discoveries. These discoveries keep on renewing and developing in to more complex logical operations. Logical correlation is necessary in deriving current mathematical formulas. Modern mathematicians describe the subject as an activity and do not consider it as history thus encouraging students to use necessary skills when solving mathematical problems. Mathematics should be applied in real life experience thus it requires training and dedication especially by students.

References

David W. Carraher and Analúcia D. Schliemann Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. Monograph , Vol. 11, Everyday and Academic Mathematics in the Classroom (2002) , pp. 131-153

Kalchman, M. (2011). Using the math in everyday life to improve student learning. Middle School Journal, 43(1), 24-31.

Mann, T. (2011). History of Mathematics and History of Science. ISIS: Journal Of The History Of Science In Society, 102(3), 518-526.

Roman, H. T. (2004). Why math is so important. Tech Directions, 63(10), 16-18. Retrieved from             http://proxy.cc.uic.edu/docview/218517519?accountid=14552

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